Publications by Year: 2019

<div>From solar sneezing to killerelectrons: outer radiation beltresponse to solar eruptions</div>
Daglis IA, Katsavrias C, Georgiou M. . Philosophical Transactions A [Internet]. 2019;377(2148).
Electrons in the outer Van Allen (radiation) belt occasionally reach relativistic energies, turning them into a potential hazard for spacecraft operating in geospace. Such electrons have secured the reputation of satellite killers and play a prominent role in space weather. The flux of these electrons can vary over time scales of years (related to the solar cycle) to minutes (related to sudden storm commencements). Electric fields and plasma waves are the main factors regulating the electron transport, acceleration and loss. Both the fields and the plasma waves are driven directly or indirectly by disturbances originating in the Sun, propagating through interplanetary space and impacting the Earth. This paper reviews our current understanding of the response of outer Van Allen belt electrons to solar eruptions and their interplanetary extensions, i.e. interplanetary coronal mass ejections and high-speed solar wind streams and the associated stream interaction regions.