Publications by Year: 2016

2016
Avivi I, Cohen YC, Joffe E, Benyamini N, Held-Kuznetsov V, Trestman S, Terpos E, Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E. Serum free immunoglobulin light chain fingerprint identifies a subset of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with worse outcome. Hematological Oncology [Internet]. 2016. WebsiteAbstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a multi-subclonal malignancy with relatively high heterogeneity. Patients who initially presented with both monoclonal-protein (MP) and free light chain (FLC) secretion but then relapsed with a light chain escape pattern have been shown to reflect disease clonal evolution and to bare a worse prognosis. We hypothesized that a discordant MP/FLC pattern at diagnosis may reflect a similar clonal evolution that had occurred prior to diagnosis of active myeloma, conferring a worse outcome. We analyzed 255 consecutive newly diagnosed MM patients who received first line bortezomib-based therapy between 2007 and 2014, hypothesizing that their MP/FLC fingerprint at diagnosis reflects clonal heterogeneity and, therefore, affects outcome. An involved FLC level ≥ 700 mg/L and MP ≥ 2.5 g/L were used as cutoffs for low vs high FLC and MP levels, respectively. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to their involved FLC and MP blood levels at diagnosis: HiLC and HiMP for patients with either a predominant FLC or a predominant MP, respectively, and HiLC-MP and LoLC-MP when both FLC and MP were increased or decreased, respectively. There were 68 (27%) patients with HiLC, which presented more often with International Staging System-3 stage (P < .0001). Multivariate analysis showed that HiLC was associated with a 5.1-fold risk for mortality in a multivariate model (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-19.68). Both HiLC and HiLC-MP phenotypes were associated with shorter progression-free survival (hazard ratio of 2.66 [95% CI, 1.33-5.32] and 2.82 [95% CI, 1.37-5.83], respectively), independently of other prognostic factors, including the use of autograft. Thus, we identified an LC predominant secretory fingerprint (HiLC phenotype) at diagnosis as a potential independent risk factor that may affect disease control and survival in newly diagnosed MM patients treated with bortezomib-based induction therapy; this may represent increased subclonal heterogeneity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vassilakopoulos TP, Pangalis GA, Chatziioannou S, Papageorgiou S, Angelopoulou MK, Galani Z, Kourti G, Prassopoulos V, Leonidopoulou T, Terpos E, et al. PET/CT in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma responding to rituximab-CHOP: An analysis of 106 patients regarding prognostic significance and implications for subsequent radiotherapy. Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;30(1):238 - 242. Website
Sakelliou A, Fatouros IG, Athanailidis I, Tsoukas D, Chatzinikolaou A, Draganidis D, Jamurtas AZ, Liacos C, Papassotiriou I, Mandalidis D, et al. Evidence of a Redox-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses to Exercise-Induced Inflammation. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity [Internet]. 2016;2016. WebsiteAbstract
We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC) to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20mg/kg/day) immediately after a muscledamaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions) and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery. NAC reduced the decline of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and the increase of plasma protein carbonyls, serum TAC and erythrocyte oxidized glutathione, and TBARS and catalase activity during recovery thereby altering postexercise redox status. The rise of muscle damage and inflammatory markers (muscle strength, creatine kinase activity, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules) was less pronounced in NAC during the first phase of recovery. The rise of leukocyte and neutrophil count was decreased by NAC after exercise. Results on immune cell subpopulations obtained by flow cytometry indicated that NAC ingestion reduced the exerciseinduced rise of total macrophages, HLA+ macrophages, and 11B+ macrophages and abolished the exercise-induced upregulation of B lymphocytes. Natural killer cells declined only in PLA immediately after exercise. These results indicate that thiol-based antioxidant supplementation blunts immune cell mobilisation in response to exercise-induced inflammation suggesting that leukocyte mobilization may be under redox-dependent regulation. Copyright © 2016 Alexandra Sakelliou et al.
Charitaki E, Kastritis E, Petraki C, Liapis K, Adamidis K, Apostolou T, Christodoulidou C, Nikolopoulou N, Terpos E, Nakopoulou L, et al. Glomerular expression of matrix metalloproteinases in AL-amyloidosis and association with renal function at the time of kidney biopsy. Clinical Nephrology [Internet]. 2016;85(1):44 - 52. WebsiteAbstract
Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various renal diseases, however, there are limited data regarding their role in renal AL-amyloidosis. In the present study, we evaluated the glomerular expression of MMPs in renal-biopsy specimens containing AL-amyloid deposits. We also examined the association of MMPs with renal function at the time of diagnostic renal biopsy. Methods: We performed immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in 19 kidney-biopsy specimens with AL-amyloidosis and 8 specimens from normal kidney tissue. We used clinical data of the patients at the time of kidney biopsy to evaluate the association between MMP expression and renal function. Results: We found increased MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression within the amyloid deposits and adjacent tissues in > 50% of the amyloid-positive biopsies, whereas MMP-1 and MMP-3 were negative in control samples. In contrast, we found no significant glomerular MMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression in amyloid-containing or normal kidneys. MMP-9 expression was found in the glomerular basement membrane equally in AL-amyloidosis and control specimens. The presence of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the glomeruli of patients with AL-amyloidosis correlated with worse renal function at the time of kidney biopsy. Conclusion: The findings of this study show increased glomerular expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in patients with AL-amyloidosis which is associated with worse renal function at the time of the kidney biopsy. Our results suggest an important role for MMP-1 and MMP-3 in the pathogenesis of renal damage in AL-amyloidosis. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. K. Feistle.
Ou Y, Doshi S, Nguyen A, Jonsson F, Aggarwal S, Rajangam K, Dimopoulos MA, Stewart AK, Badros A, Papadopoulos KP, et al. Population Pharmacokinetics and Exposure-Response Relationship of Carfilzomib in Patients With Multiple Myeloma. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology [Internet]. 2016. WebsiteAbstract
A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model and exposure-response (E-R) analysis was developed using data collected from 5 phase 1b/2 and 2 phase 3 studies in subjects with multiple myeloma. Subjects receiving intravenous infusion on 2 consecutive days each week for 3 weeks (days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16) in each cycle at doses ranging from 15 to 20/56 mg/m2 (20 mg/m2 in cycle 1 and, if tolerated, escalated to 56 mg/m2 on day 8 of cycle 1). The population PK analysis indicated that among all the covariates tested, the only statistically significant covariate was body surface area on carfilzomib clearance; however, this covariate was unlikely to be clinically significant. Despite inclusion of different populations (relapsed or relapsed/refractory), treatments (carfilzomib monotherapy or combination therapy), infusion lengths (2 to 10 minutes or 30 minutes), and different doses, the E-R analysis of efficacy showed that after adjusting for baseline characteristics, higher area under the concentration-time curve was associated with improved overall response rate (ORR), from 15 to 20/56 mg/m2. No positive relationships between maximum concentration and ORR were identified, indicating that ORR would not be expected to be impacted by infusion length. For safety end points, no statistically significant relationship between exposure and increasing risk of adverse events was identified. The results of an E-R analysis provided strong support for a carfilzomib dose at 20/56 mg/m2 as a 30-minute infusion for monotherapy and combination therapy. This article illustrates an example of application of E-R analysis to support labeling dose recommendation in the absence of extensive clinical data. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Papassotiriou G-P, Kastritis E, Gkotzamanidou M, Christoulas D, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Migkou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Roussou M, Margeli A, Papassotiriou I, et al. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Cystatin C Are Sensitive Markers of Renal Injury in Patients with Multiple Myeloma. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;16(1):29 - 35. WebsiteAbstract
Background Renal impairment is a common complication of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of 2 newly discovered biomarkers of renal injury, cystatin C (CysC), a protein reflecting glomerular filtration rate, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a protein reflecting tubular injuries. Patients and Methods We studied 64 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma: 16 with asymptomatic (smoldering) MM and 48 with symptomatic myeloma; 8 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); and 20 healthy control subjects. Along with common blood and urine chemistry determinations, measurements of CysC, NGAL, β2-microglobulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 were performed. Results We found that only patients with symptomatic MM had increased levels of CysC compared to controls (P <.01); that serum NGAL levels were elevated in all patients compared to controls P <.001; that NGAL strongly correlated with both estimation of glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) (CysC) and EGFR (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD] formula) (r = 0.616, P <.0001; and r = -0.371, P <.01, respectively); that CysC showed strong correlation with EGFR (r = -0.782, P <.001) and with the International Scoring System (ISS) (more pronounced in patients with ISS-3); and that receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that NGAL values of > 50.5 μg/L have a 80.8% sensitivity and 86.4% specificity for EGFR < 60 mL/min (area under the curve = 0.764). Conclusion These findings suggest that both NGAL and CysC are very sensitive markers that reflect renal impairment in newly diagnosed patients with MM. The high levels of NGAL in asymptomatic patients and in MGUS patients support the hypothesis of the presence of renal damage in these patients early in the course of their disease and may reveal NGAL to be an early marker that predicts the presence of renal impairment in MM. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Weisel KC, Dimopoulos MA, Moreau P, Lacy MQ, Song KW, Delforge M, Karlin L, Goldschmidt H, Banos A, Oriol A, et al. Analysis of renal impairment in MM-003, a phase III study of pomalidomide + low‐dose dexamethasone versus high‐dose dexamethasone in refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Haematologica [Internet]. 2016;101(7):872 - 878. WebsiteAbstract
Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone is effective and well tolerated for refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after bortezomib and lenalidomide failure. The phase III trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone with high-dose dexamethasone. This subanalysis grouped patients by baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 30 - < 60 mL/min (n=93, pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone; n=56, high-dose dexamethasone) or ≥ 60 mL/min (n=205, pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone; n=93, high-dose dexamethasone). Median progression-free survival was similar for both subgroups and favored pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone: 4.0 versus 1.9 months in the group with baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 30 - < 60 mL/min (P<0.001) and 4.0 versus 2.0 months in the group with baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 60 mL/min (P<0.001). Median overall survival for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone was 10.4 versus 4.9 months (P=0.030) and 15.5 versus 9.2 months (P=0.133), respectively. Improved renal function, defined as an increase in creatinine clearance from < 60 to ≥ 60 mL/min, was similar in pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone and high-dose dexamethasone patients (42% and 47%, respectively). Improvement in progression-free and overall survival in these patients was comparable with that in patients without renal impairment. There was no increase in discontinuations of therapy, dose modifications, and adverse events in patients with moderate renal impairment. Pomalidomide at a starting dose of 4 mg + low-dose dexamethasone is well tolerated in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma, and of comparable efficacy if moderate renal impairment is present. © 2016 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Dimopoulos MA, Cheung MC, Roussel M, Liu T, Gamberi B, Kolb B, Derigs HG, Eom HS, Belhadj K, Lenain P, et al. Impact of renal impairment on outcomes with lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment in the FIRST trial, a randomized, open-label phase 3 trial in transplant-ineligible patients with multiple myeloma. Haematologica [Internet]. 2016;101(3):363 - 370. WebsiteAbstract
Renal impairment is associated with poor prognosis in myeloma. This analysis of the pivotal phase 3 FIRST trial examined the impact of renally adapted dosing of lenalidomide and dexamethasone on outcomes of patients with different degrees of renal impairment. Transplant-ineligible patients not requiring dialysis were randomized 1:1:1 to receive continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone until disease progression (n=535) or for 18 cycles (72 weeks; n=541), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide for 12 cycles (72 weeks; n=547). Follow-up is ongoing. Patients were grouped by baseline creatinine clearance into no (≥ 80 mL/min [n=389]), mild (≥ 50 to < 80 mL/min [n=715]), moderate (≥ 30 to < 50 mL/min [n=372]), and severe impairment (< 30 mL/min [n=147]) subgroups. Continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy reduced the risk of progression or death in no, mild, and moderate renal impairment subgroups vs. melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide therapy (HR = 0.67, 0.70, and 0.65, respectively). Overall survival benefits were observed with continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment vs.melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide treatment in no or mild renal impairment subgroups. Renal function improved from baseline in 52.6% of lenalidomide and dexamethasone–treated patients. The safety profile of continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone was consistent across renal subgroups, except for grade 3/4 anemia and rash, which increased with increasing severity of renal impairment. Continuous lenalidomide and dexamethasone treatment, with renally adapted lenalidomide dosing, was effective for most transplant-ineligible patients with myeloma and renal impairment. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00689936); EudraCT (2007- 004823-39). Funding: Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome and the Celgene Corporation. © 2016 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Dimopoulos MA, Moreau P, Palumbo A, Joshua D, Pour L, Hájek R, Facon T, Ludwig H, Oriol A, Goldschmidt H, et al. Carfilzomib and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (ENDEAVOR): And randomised, phase 3, open-label, multicentre study. The Lancet Oncology [Internet]. 2016;17(1):27 - 38. WebsiteAbstract
Background: Bortezomib with dexamethasone is a standard treatment option for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Carfilzomib with dexamethasone has shown promising activity in patients in this disease setting. The aim of this study was to compare the combination of carfilzomib and dexamethasone with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Methods: In this randomised, phase 3, open-label, multicentre study, patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who had one to three previous treatments were randomly assigned (1:1) using a blocked randomisation scheme (block size of four) to receive carfilzomib with dexamethasone (carfilzomib group) or bortezomib with dexamethasone (bortezomib group). Randomisation was stratified by previous proteasome inhibitor therapy, previous lines of treatment, International Staging System stage, and planned route of bortezomib administration if randomly assigned to bortezomib with dexamethasone. Patients received treatment until progression with carfilzomib (20 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 of cycle 1; 56 mg/m2 thereafter; 30 min intravenous infusion) and dexamethasone (20 mg oral or intravenous infusion) or bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2; intravenous bolus or subcutaneous injection) and dexamethasone (20 mg oral or intravenous infusion). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. All participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. The study is ongoing but not enrolling participants; results for the interim analysis of the primary endpoint are presented. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01568866. Findings: Between June 20, 2012, and June 30, 2014, 929 patients were randomly assigned (464 to the carfilzomib group; 465 to the bortezomib group). Median follow-up was 11·9 months (IQR 9·3-16·1) in the carfilzomib group and 11·1 months (8·2-14·3) in the bortezomib group. Median progression-free survival was 18·7 months (95% CI 15·6-not estimable) in the carfilzomib group versus 9·4 months (8·4-10·4) in the bortezomib group at a preplanned interim analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 0·53 [95% CI 0·44-0·65]; p<0·0001). On-study death due to adverse events occurred in 18 (4%) of 464 patients in the carfilzomib group and in 16 (3%) of 465 patients in the bortezomib group. Serious adverse events were reported in 224 (48%) of 463 patients in the carfilzomib group and in 162 (36%) of 456 patients in the bortezomib group. The most frequent grade 3 or higher adverse events were anaemia (67 [14%] of 463 patients in the carfilzomib group vs 45 [10%] of 456 patients in the bortezomib group), hypertension (41 [9%] vs 12 [3%]), thrombocytopenia (39 [8%] vs 43 [9%]), and pneumonia (32 [7%] vs 36 [8%]). Interpretation: For patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, carfilzomib with dexamethasone could be considered in cases in which bortezomib with dexamethasone is a potential treatment option. Funding: Onyx Pharmaceuticals, Inc., an Amgen subsidiary. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Bamias A, Peroukidis S, Stamatopoulou S, Tzannis K, Koutsoukos K, Andreadis C, Bozionelou V, Pistalmatzian N, Papatsoris A, Stravodimos K, et al. Utilization of Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Urothelial Cancer: A Retrospective Collaborative Study by the Hellenic Genitourinary Cancer Group (HGUCG). Clinical Genitourinary Cancer [Internet]. 2016;14(2):e153 - e159. WebsiteAbstract
Background Advanced urothelial cancer (AUCa) is associated with poor long-term survival. Two major concerns are related to nonexposure to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and poor outcome after relapse. Our purpose was to record patterns of practice in AUCa in Greece, focusing on first-line treatment and management of relapsed disease. Methods Patients with AUCa treated from 2011 to 2013 were included in the analysis. Fitness for cisplatin was assessed by recently established criteria. Results Of 327 patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, 179 (55%) did not receive cisplatin. Criteria for unfitness for cisplatin were: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) ≥ 2, 21%; creatinine clearance ≤ 60 mL/min, 55%; hearing impairment, 8%; neuropathy, 1%; and cardiac failure, 5%. Forty-six patients (27%) did not fulfill any criterion for unfitness for cisplatin. The main reasons for these deviations were comorbidities (28%) and advanced age (32%). Seventy-four (68%) of 109 patients who experienced a relapse received second-line chemotherapy. The most frequent reason for not offering second-line chemotherapy was poor PS or limited life expectancy (66%). Conclusion In line with international data, approximately 50% of Greek patients with AUCa do not receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, although 27% of them were suitable for such treatment. In addition, about one third of patients with relapse did not receive second-line chemotherapy because of poor PS or short life expectancy. Enforcing criteria for fitness for cisplatin and earlier diagnosis of relapse represent 2 targets for improvement in current treatment practice for AUCa. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Caers J, de Larrea CF, Leleu X, Heusschen R, Zojer N, Decaux O, Kastritis E, Minnema M, Jurczyszyn A, Beguin Y, et al. The changing landscape of smoldering multiple myeloma: A european perspective. Oncologist [Internet]. 2016;21(3):333 - 342. WebsiteAbstract
Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder and bridges monoclonal gammo- pathyof undetermined significance to multiple myeloma (MM), based on higher levels of circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin and bone marrow plasmocytosis without end-organ damage. Until a Spanish study reported fewer MM-related events and better overall survival among patients with high- risk SMM treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, prior studies had failed to show improved survival with earlier intervention,although a reduction in skeletal-related events (without any impact on disease progression) has been described with bisphosphonate use. Risk factors have now been defined, and a subset of ultra-high-risk patients have been reclassified by the International Myeloma Working Group as MM, and thus will require optimal MM treatment, based on biomarkers that identify patients with a >80% risk of progression. The number of these redefined patients is small (~10%), but important to unravel, because theirriskof progression to overt MM is substantial ($80% within 2 years). Patients with a high-risk cytogenetic profile are not yet considered for early treatment, because groups are heterogeneous and risk factors other than cytogenetics are deemed to weight higher. Because patients with ultra-high- risk SMM are now considered as MM and may be treated as such, concerns exist that earlier therapy may increase the risk of selecting resistant clones and induce side effects and costs. Therefore, an even more accurate identification of patients who would benefit from interventions needs to be performed, and clinical judgment and careful discussion of pros and cons of treatment initiation need to be undertaken. For the majority of SMM patients, the standard of care remains observation until development of symptomatic MM occurs, encouraging participation in ongoing and upcoming SMM/early MM clinical trials, as well as consideration of bisphosphonate use in patients with early bone loss. © AlphaMed Press 2016.
Richardson PG, Hungria VTM, Yoon S-S, Beksac M, Dimopoulos MA, Elghandour A, Jedrzejczak WW, Guenther A, Na Nakorn T, Siritanaratkul N, et al. Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by prior treatment. Blood [Internet]. 2016;127(6):713 - 721. WebsiteAbstract
Panobinostat is a potent pan-deacetylase inhibitor that affects the growth and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through alteration of epigenetic mechanisms and protein metabolism. Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (PAN-BTZ-Dex) led to a significant increase in progression-free survival (PFS) vs placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (Pbo-BTZ-Dex) in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractoryMMin the phase 3PANORAMA1 trial. This subgroup analysis evaluated outcomes in patients in the PANORAMA 1 trial based on prior treatment: A prior immunomodulatory drug (IMiD; n 5 485), prior bortezomib plus an IMiD (n 5 193), and ≥2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD (n5147). Median PFS with PAN-BTZ-Dex vs Pbo-BTZ-Dex across subgroups was as follows: prior IMiD (12.3 vs 7.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.68), prior bortezomib plus IMiD (10.6 vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.52;95%CI, 0.36-0.76),and ≥2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD (12.5 vs 4.7 months; HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.72). Common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities in patients who received PAN-BTZ-Dex across the prior treatment groups included thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, diarrhea, and asthenia/ fatigue. Incidence of on-treatment deaths among patients who received prior bortezomib and an IMiD (regardless of number of prior regimens) was similar between treatment arms. This analysis demonstrated a clear PFS benefit of 7.8 months with PAN-BTZ-Dex among patients who received ‡2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD, a population with limited treatment options and poorer prognosis. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01023308. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E, Ghobrial IM. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: A clinical perspective in the era of novel therapeutics. Annals of Oncology [Internet]. 2016;27(2):233 - 240. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, low-grade malignancy with no established standard of care. Rituximab regimens are most commonly used, supported by their efficacy in hematologic malignancies, including WM. A growing number of investigational regimens for WM have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials, including single-agent and combination strategies that include newer-generation monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab and alemtuzumab), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib), immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway inhibitors (everolimus and perifosene), a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (panobinostat). Other novel agents are in early-stage development for WM. International treatment guidelines for WM suggest suitable regimens in the newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory settings, in accordance with patient age, disease presentation, and efficacy and safety profiles of particular drugs. These factors must be considered when choosing appropriate therapy for individual patients with WM, to maximize response and prolong survival, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. This review article provides a clinical perspective of the modern management of patients with WM, in the context of available trial data for novel regimens and recently updated treatment guidelines. © The Author 2015.
Engert A, Balduini C, Brand A, Coiffier B, Cordonnier C, Döhner H, De Wit TD, Eichinger S, Fibbe W, Green T, et al. The european hematology association roadmap for european hematology research: A consensus document. Haematologica [Internet]. 2016;101(2):115 - 208. WebsiteAbstract
The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at ∈ European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better fu treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine ‘sections’ in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients. © 2016 Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Michopoulos S, Chouzouri VI, Manios ED, Grapsa E, Antoniou Z, Papadimitriou CA, Zakopoulos N, Dimopoulos A-M. Untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a population of a hypertensive center. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology [Internet]. 2016;9:1 - 9. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: Recent studies have demonstrated that hypertension (HTN) is associated with non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in treated hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between newly diagnosed essential HTN and NAFLD in untreated hypertensive patients. Patients and methods: A consecutive series of 240 subjects (143 hypertensives and 97 normotensives), aged 30-80 years, without diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. Subjects with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) values ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic BP values ≥80 mmHg were defined as hypertensives. NAFLD was defined as the presence of liver hyperechogenicity on ultrasound. Results: Body mass index (P=0.002) and essential HTN (P=0.016) were independently associated with NAFLD in the multivariate logistic regression model. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that morning SBP (P=0.044) was independently associated with NAFLD. Conclusion: Untreated, newly diagnosed essential HTN is independently associated with NAFLD. Ambulatory BP monitoring could be used for the diagnosis of essential HTN in patients with NAFLD. © 2016 Michopoulos et al.
Duvic M, Dimopoulos M. The safety profile of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid) in hematologic malignancies: A review of clinical studies. Cancer Treatment Reviews [Internet]. 2016;43:58 - 66. WebsiteAbstract
Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are multifunctional enzymes that posttranslationally modify both histone and nonhistone acetylation sites, affecting a broad range of cellular processes (e.g., cell cycle, apoptosis, and protein folding) often dysregulated in cancer. HDAC inhibitors are small molecules that directly interact with HDAC catalytic sites preventing the removal of acetyl groups, thereby counteracting the effects of HDACs. Since the first HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid, was investigated as a potential antitumor agent, there have been a number of other HDAC inhibitors developed to improve efficacy and safety. Despite significant progress in the management of patients with hematologic malignancies, overall survival is still poor. The discovery that HDACs may play a role in hematologic malignancies and preclinical studies showing promising activity with HDAC inhibitors in various tumor types, led to clinical evaluation of HDAC inhibitors as potential treatment options for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. The Food and Drug Administration has approved two HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat (2006) and romidepsin (2009), for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This review highlights the safety of HDAC inhibitors currently approved or being investigated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, with a specific focus on the safety experience with vorinostat in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. © 2016.
Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Recent advances in the management of AL Amyloidosis. British Journal of Haematology [Internet]. 2016;172(2):170 - 186. WebsiteAbstract
Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis, the most common of the systemic amyloidosis, is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils that derive from the aggregation of misfolded monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. Amyloid fibrils disrupt tissue architecture and the pre-fibril oligomers are directly toxic to myocardiac cells, causing cardiac dysfunction. The lethal consequences of AL amyloidosis are due to the toxic product and not due to the malignant behaviour of the plasma cell clone however, the characteristics of this clone are associated with long-term prognosis. Early and accurate diagnosis is the key to effective management, but is challenging. Modern chemotherapy options (including autologous transplantation, bortezomib, lenalidomide) have improved the outcomes of patients at low or intermediate risk, but the prognosis of patients with severe cardiac dysfunction is still poor. Therapies targeting amyloid deposits and the amyloidogenic process are under investigation and offer promise for better future treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Samara P, Skopeliti M, Tsiatas ML, Georgaki S, Gouloumis C, Voelter W, Dimopoulos A-M, Bamias A, Tsitsilonis OE. A Cytokine cocktail augments the efficacy of adoptive NK-92 cell therapy against mouse xenografts of human cancer. Anticancer Research [Internet]. 2016;36(7):3373 - 3382. WebsiteAbstract
Background/Aim: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated with immobilized monoclonal antibody against cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) secrete cytokines in their culture supernatant (termed ACD3S). We examined the antitumor efficacy of ACD3S-activated NK-92 cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Interleukin (IL) 2-depleted NK-92 cells were reactivated with ACD3S, analyzed for their phenotype and tested for cytotoxicity, and perforin and interferon (IFN) production. Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice xenografted with human melanoma and breast cancer cells were treated with ACD3S-activated NK-92 cells and tumor growth was monitored. Results: Brief activation of IL2-depleted NK-92 cells with ACD3S fully restored their in vitro cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. ACD3S-activated NK-92 cells were phenotypically similar to standard NK-92 cells, but exhibited prolonged cytotoxicity and produced higher levels of IFN. When adoptively transferred to tumor-bearing SCID mice, these cells retarded the growth of melanoma and breast tumors. Conclusion: Stimulation of NK-92 cells with ACD3S may be useful in clinical cancer therapy, as an alternative method for ex vivo natural killer cell activation.
Bagratuni T, Terpos E, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Kalapanida D, Gavriatopoulou M, Migkou M, Liacos C-I, Tasidou A, Matsouka C, Mparmparousi D, et al. TLR4/TIRAP polymorphisms are associated with progression and survival of patients with symptomatic myeloma. British Journal of Haematology [Internet]. 2016;172(1):44 - 47. WebsiteAbstract
Myeloma cells thrive in an environment of sustained inflammation, which impacts the development and evolution of the disease, as well as drug resistance. We evaluated the impact of genetic polymorphisms in the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, which have been implicated in different inflammatory responses in the outcomes of patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) who have received contemporary therapies. We found that the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both the TLR4 and toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-associated protein (TIRAP) genes was associated with lower response to primary therapy mainly for patients who received immunomodulatory drugs but not in patients treated with bortezomib-based therapies. Furthermore, TIRAP SNP was associated with a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival, independently of other prognostic factors, such as age, transplant, International Staging System stage, lactate dehydrogenase and cytogenetics. This is the first study to demonstrate the effect of SNPs in TLR4/TIRAP in MM. Our data indicate that genetic variability in the immune system may be associated with different responses to antimyeloma therapies and may be a critical component affecting the natural history of the disease, providing the basis for further investigation of the role of these pathways in myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bamias A, Tsantoulis P, Zilli T, Papatsoris A, Caparrotti F, Kyratsas C, Tzannis K, Stravodimos K, Chrisofos M, Wirth GJ, et al. Outcome of patients with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer not undergoing cystectomy after treatment with noncisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy: a retrospective analysis. Cancer Medicine [Internet]. 2016;5(6):1098 - 1107. WebsiteAbstract
Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combinations can be used in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) not undergoing cystectomy. Nevertheless, unfitness for cystectomy is frequently associated with unfitness for other therapeutic modalities. We report the outcome of patients with MIBC who did not undergo cystectomy and did not receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Selection criteria for the study were nonmetastatic MIBC, no cystectomy, no cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should have been used aside from TURBT. Forty-nine patients (median age 79), managed between April 2001 and January 2012, were included in this analysis. Median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 5, while 76% were unfit for cisplatin. Treatment included radiotherapy (n = 7), carboplatin-based chemotherapy (n = 25), carboplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 10), and radiochemotherapy (n = 7). Five-year event-free rate was 26% (standard error [SE] = 7) for overall survival, 23% (SE = 7) for progression-free survival, and 30 (SE = 8) for cancer-specific survival (CSS). Patients who were treated with combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy had significantly longer CSS compared to those treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy only (5-year CSS rate: 16% [SE 8] vs. 63% [SE 15], P = 0.053). Unfit-for-cystectomy patients frequently receive suboptimal nonsurgical treatment. Their outcome was poor. Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy produced better outcomes and should be prospectively evaluated. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fountzilas G, Giannoulatou E, Alexopoulou Z, Zagouri F, Timotheadou E, Papadopoulou K, Lakis S, Bobos M, Poulios C, Sotiropoulou M, et al. TP53 mutations and protein immunopositivity may predict for poor outcome but also for trastuzumab benefit in patients with early breast cancer treated in the adjuvant setting. Oncotarget [Internet]. 2016;7(22):32731 - 32753. WebsiteAbstract
Background: We investigated the impact of PIK3CA and TP53 mutations and p53 protein status on the outcome of patients who had been treated with adjuvant anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy within clinical trials in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era. Results: TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were found in 380 (21.5%) and 458 (25.9%) cases, respectively, including 104 (5.9%) co-mutated tumors; p53 immunopositivity was observed in 848 tumors (53.5%). TP53 mutations (p < 0.001) and p53 protein positivity (p = 0.001) were more frequent in HER2-positive and triple negative (TNBC) tumors, while PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in Luminal A/B tumors (p < 0.001). TP53 mutation status and p53 protein expression but not PIK3CA mutation status interacted with trastuzumab treatment for disease-free survival; patients with tumors bearing TP53 mutations or immunopositive for p53 protein fared better when treated with trastuzumab, while among patients treated with trastuzumab those with the above characteristics fared best (interaction p = 0.017 for mutations; p = 0.015 for IHC). Upon multivariate analysis the above interactions remained significant in HER2-positive patients; in the entire cohort, TP53 mutations were unfavorable in patients with Luminal A/B (p = 0.003) and TNBC (p = 0.025); p53 immunopositivity was strongly favorable in patients treated with trastuzumab (p = 0.009). Materials and Methods: TP53 and PIK3CA mutation status was examined in 1766 paraffin tumor DNA samples with informative semiconductor sequencing results. Among these, 1585 cases were also informative for p53 protein status assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC; 10% positivity cut-off). Conclusions: TP53 mutations confer unfavorable prognosis in patients with Luminal A/B and TNBC tumors, while p53 immunopositivity may predict for trastuzumab benefit in the adjuvant setting.
Dimopoulos MA, Roussou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Psimenou E, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Migkou M, Matsouka C, Mparmparousi D, Gika D, Kafantari E, et al. Bortezomib-based triplets are associated with a high probability of dialysis independence and rapid renal recovery in newly diagnosed myeloma patients with severe renal failure or those requiring dialysis. American Journal of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;91(5):499 - 502. WebsiteAbstract
Renal failure (RF) is a common and severe complication of symptomatic myeloma, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Such patients are commonly excluded from clinical trials. Bortezomib/dexamethasone (VD)-based regimens are the backbone of the treatment of newly diagnosed MM patients who present with severe RF even those requiring dialysis. We analyzed the outcomes of 83 consecutive bortezomib-treated patients with severe RF (eGFR<30 ml/min/1.73 m2), of which 31 (37%) required dialysis. By IMWG renal response criteria, 54 (65%) patients achieved at least MRrenal, including CRrenal in 35% and PRrenal in 12%. Triplet combinations (i.e., VD plus a third agent) versus VD alone were associated with higher rates of renal responses (72 vs. 50%; P=0.06). Fifteen of the 31 (48%) patients became dialysis independent within a median of 217 days (range 11-724). Triplets were associated with a higher probability of dialysis discontinuation (57 vs. 35%). Serum free light chain (sFLC) level ≥11,550 mg/L was associated with lower rates of major renal response, longer time to major renal response, lower probability, and longer time to dialysis discontinuation. Rapid myeloma response (≥PR within the first month) was also associated with higher rates of renal response. Patients who became dialysis-independent had longer survival than those remaining on dialysis. In conclusion, VD-based triplets are associated with a significant probability of renal response and dialysis discontinuation, improving the survival of patients who became dialysis independent. Rapid disease response is important for renal recovery and sFLCs are predictive of the probability and of the time required for renal response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moreau P, Van De Donk NWCJ, Miguel JS, Lokhorst H, Nahi H, Ben-Yehuda D, Cavo M, Cook G, Delforge M, Einsele H, et al. Practical Considerations for the Use of Daratumumab, a Novel CD38 Monoclonal Antibody, in Myeloma. Drugs [Internet]. 2016;76(8):853 - 867. WebsiteAbstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a recent addition to multiple myeloma (MM) therapies and a number of mAbs directed at myeloma cell surface molecules are in development. Daratumumab is a CD38 mAb that has demonstrated substantial activity and good tolerability in four phase I, phase I/II and phase II studies as monotherapy, as well as in combination with current standard treatments in MM. The positive results obtained in the relapsed/refractory setting in patients with advanced-stage disease and in a small number of patients with newly diagnosed disease provide the rationale for the investigation of the agent in a number of ongoing phase III trials. mAbs are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy; however, their use requires other special considerations. Such factors include those common to all mAbs, namely infusion-related reactions, but also factors that are observed with mAbs used in myeloma, such as interference with response assessment, or factors that are related to CD38 mAbs such as daratumumab, for instance blood typing interference. Our review provides an overview of the results from the daratumumab clinical trials conducted to date, as well as practical management considerations for the use of daratumumab based on our experience with the agent. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Dimopoulos MA, Sonneveld P, Leung N, Merlini G, Ludwig H, Kastritis E, Goldschmidt H, Joshua D, Orlowski RZ, Powles R, et al. International Myeloma working group recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Myeloma-Related Renal Impairment. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(13):1544 - 1557. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma-related renal impairment (RI). Methods Recommendations were based on published data through December 2015, and were developed using the system developed by the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group. Recommendations All patients with myeloma at diagnosis and at disease assessment should have serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and electrolytes measurements as well as free light chain, if available, and urine electrophoresis of a sample from a 24-hour urine collection (grade A). The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, preferably, or the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula should be used for the evaluation of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with stabilized serum creatinine (grade A). International Myeloma Working Group criteria for renal reversibility should be used (grade B). For themanagement of RI in patientswithmultiplemyeloma, high fluid intake is indicated along with antimyeloma therapy (grade B). The use of high-cutoff hemodialysis membranes in combination with antimyeloma therapy can be considered (grade B). Bortezomib-based regimens remain the cornerstone of the management of myeloma-related RI (grade A). High-dose dexamethasone should be administered at least for the first month of therapy (grade B). Thalidomide is effective in patients with myeloma with RI, and no dose modifications are needed (grade B). Lenalidomide is effective and safe, mainly in patients with mild to moderate RI (grade B); for patients with severe RI or on dialysis, lenalidomide should be given with closemonitoring for hematologic toxicity (grade B) with dose reduction as needed. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (with melphalan 100 mg/m2 to 140 mg/m2) is feasible in patients with RI (grade C). Carfilzomib can be safely administered to patients with creatinine clearance . 15 mL/min, whereas ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone can be safely administered to patients with creatinine clearance . 30 mL/min (grade A). © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Zagouri F, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Emerging antibodies for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs [Internet]. 2016;21(2):225 - 237. WebsiteAbstract
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Monoclonal antibodies mark the beginning of a new era in the context of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. Numerous antibodies have been tested or are currently in development for patients with MM, in order to improve tolerability and quality of life. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews emerging antibodies for the treatment of MM i.e. elotuzumab, daratumumab, MOR03087, isatuximab, bevacizumab, cetuximab, siltuximab, tocilizumab, elsilimomab, azintrel, rituximab, tositumomab, milatuzumab, lucatumumab, dacetuzumab, figitumumab, dalotuzumab, AVE1642, tabalumab, pembrolizumab, pidilizumab, nivolumab. Expert opinion: Amongst these antibodies, elotuzumab which targets SLAMF-7 and daratumumab which targets CD38, have been recently approved by FDA for patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Both agents are well tolerated. Multiple clinical trials incorporating these monoclonal antibodies in MM treatment are currently ongoing. Of special interest are the anticipated results of phase III clinical trials with elotuzumab [NCT0189164; NCT01335399; NCT02495922] and daratumumab [NCT02252172; NCT02195479] in newly diagnosed MM patients. Moreover, of great interest are the awaited data on pembrolizumabin combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in refractory/relapsed MM patients [NCT02576977] and in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed MM patients. It seems that the incorporation of monoclonal antibodies will change the landscape of myeloma therapy in the near future. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Dimopoulos MA, Moreau P, Palumbo A, Chng W-J, Feng S. Carfilozomib versus bortezomib for relapsed or refractory myeloma – Authors' reply. The Lancet Oncology [Internet]. 2016;17(4):e126. Website
Drivalos A, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Kapranou A, Kollaitis G, Koutlis G, Antoniou N, Karanastasis D, Dimopoulos MA, Bamias A. Expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin in localized prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations [Internet]. 2016;34(4):165.e11 - 165.e18. WebsiteAbstract
Objective: To explore the correlation between the expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin in prostate cancer (PCa) and its clinicopathological data including tumor grade and clinical stage. Methods: The expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin was examined in 157 cases of PCa and adjacent normal prostatic tissue by immunohistochemical assay, and the correlation with clinicopathological features was analyzed. Results: Expressions of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin in PCa were lower than those in normal prostatic tissues (P<0.05). N-cadherin expression was higher in cancer prostatic tissue than in normal prostatic tissues (P<0.05). The reduced expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin was related to Gleason score, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and prostate-specific antigen level, but it was not associated with positive surgical margins and patient age. The increased expression of N-cadherin was related to Gleason score, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and prostate-specific antigen level, but not to age and positive surgical margins. The expression of E-cadherin was highly negatively correlated with that of N-cadherin and also positively correlated with that of α5-integrin and α7-integrin. Conclusion: The reduced expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin and abnormal expression of N-cadherin play an important role in the occurrence and development of PCa. The results indicate that these have potential values in the diagnosis and are predictable indices in the proliferation of PCa. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Siegel DS, Dimopoulos M, Jagannath S, Goldschmidt H, Durrant S, Kaufman JL, Leleu X, Nagler A, Offner F, Graef T, et al. VANTAGE 095: An International, Multicenter, Open-Label Study of Vorinostat (MK-0683) in Combination with Bortezomib in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;16(6):329 - 334.e1. WebsiteAbstract
Background The present global, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase IIb study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral vorinostat combined with standard doses of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma considered refractory to novel myeloma agents. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, had received ≥ 2 previous regimens, had disease refractory to ≥ 1 previous bortezomib-containing regimen, and had received ≥ 1 dose of an immunomodulatory drug (thalidomide or lenalidomide)-based regimen. The patients received 21-day cycles of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) plus oral vorinostat (400 mg/d on days 1-14). Oral dexamethasone, 20 mg, on the day of and the day after each dose of bortezomib could be added for patients with progressive disease after 2 cycles or no change after 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Results The objective response rate was 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 6.6%-17.7%), and the median duration of response was 211 days (range, 64-550 days). The median overall survival duration was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.5-14.4 months), with a 2-year survival rate of 32%. The frequently reported adverse events were thrombocytopenia (69.7%), nausea (57.0%), diarrhea (53.5%), anemia (52.1%), and fatigue (48.6%); the overall safety profile was consistent with that of bortezomib and vorinostat. Conclusion The combination of vorinostat and bortezomib is active in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to novel treatment modalities and offers a new therapeutic option for this difficult-to-treat patient population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00773838). © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Trachana S-P, Pilalis E, Gavalas NG, Tzannis K, Papadodima O, Liontos M, Rodolakis A, Vlachos G, Thomakos N, Haidopoulos D, et al. The development of an angiogenic protein "signature" in ovarian cancer ascites as a tool for biologic and prognostic profiling. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2016;11(6). WebsiteAbstract
Advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) is one of the leading lethal gynecological cancers in developed countries. Based on the important role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer oncogenesis and expansion, we hypothesized that the development of an "angiogenic signature" might be helpful in prediction of prognosis and efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies in this disease. Sixty-nine samples of ascitic fluid- 35 from platinum sensitive and 34 from platinum resistant patients managed with cytoreductive surgery and 1st-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy- were analyzed using the Proteome Profiler™ Human Angiogenesis Array Kit, screening for the presence of 55 soluble angiogenesis-related factors. A protein profile based on the expression of a subset of 25 factors could accurately separate resistant from sensitive patients with a success rate of approximately 90%. The protein profile corresponding to the "sensitive" subset was associated with significantly longer PFS (8 [95% Confidence Interval {CI}: 8-9] vs. 20 months [95% CI: 15-28]; Hazard ratio {HR}: 8.3, p<0.001) and OS (20.5 months [95% CI: 13.5-30] vs. 74 months [95% CI: 36-not reached]; HR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.8-11.2]; p<0.001). This prognostic performance was superior to that of stage, histology and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ascites. In conclusion, we developed an "angiogenic signature" for patients with AOC, which can be used, after appropriate validation, as a prognostic marker and a tool for selection for anti-angiogenic therapies. © 2016 Trachana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Kumar S, Paiva B, Anderson KC, Durie B, Landgren O, Moreau P, Munshi N, Lonial S, Bladé J, Mateos M-V, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma. The Lancet Oncology [Internet]. 2016;17(8):e328 - e346. WebsiteAbstract
Treatment of multiple myeloma has substantially changed over the past decade with the introduction of several classes of new effective drugs that have greatly improved the rates and depth of response. Response criteria in multiple myeloma were developed to use serum and urine assessment of monoclonal proteins and bone marrow assessment (which is relatively insensitive). Given the high rates of complete response seen in patients with multiple myeloma with new treatment approaches, new response categories need to be defined that can identify responses that are deeper than those conventionally defined as complete response. Recent attempts have focused on the identification of residual tumour cells in the bone marrow using flow cytometry or gene sequencing. Furthermore, sensitive imaging techniques can be used to detect the presence of residual disease outside of the bone marrow. Combining these new methods, the International Myeloma Working Group has defined new response categories of minimal residual disease negativity, with or without imaging-based absence of extramedullary disease, to allow uniform reporting within and outside clinical trials. In this Review, we clarify several aspects of disease response assessment, along with endpoints for clinical trials, and highlight future directions for disease response assessments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, Corradini P, Cavo M, Delforge M, Di Raimondo F, Weisel KC, Oriol A, Hansson M, Vacca A, et al. Safety and efficacy of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in STRATUS (MM-010): A phase 3b study in refractory multiple myeloma. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(4):497 - 503. WebsiteAbstract
Patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) have poor prognosis. The STRATUS study assessed safety and efficacy of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in the largest cohort to date of patients with RRMM. Patients who failed treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide and had adequate prior alkylator therapy were eligible. Pomalidomide 4 mg was given on days 1-21 of 28-day cycles with low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg (20 mg for patients aged >75 years) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Safety was the primary end point; secondary end points included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Among 682 patients enrolled, median age was 66 years, and median time since diagnosis was 5.3 years. Median number of prior regimens was 5. Most patients were refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib (80.2%). Median follow-up was 16.8 months; median duration of treatment was 4.9 months. Most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hematologic (neutropenia [49.7%], anemia [33.0%], and thrombocytopenia [24.1%]). Most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were pneumonia (10.9%) and fatigue (5.9%). Grade 3/4 venous thromboembolism and peripheral neuropathy were rare (1.6% each). The ORR was 32.6%, and the median DOR was 7.4 months. Median PFS and OS were 4.6 months and 11.9 months, respectively. We present the largest trial to date evaluating pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in patients with RRMM, further confirming that this regimen offers clinically meaningful benefit and is generally well tolerated. www.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01712789. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Kastritis E, Papassotiriou I, Terpos E, Roussou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Komitopoulou A, Skevaki C, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Pamboucas C, Psimenou E, et al. Clinical and prognostic significance of serum levels of von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS-13 antigens in AL amyloidosis. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(3):405 - 409. WebsiteAbstract
Cardiac dysfunction determines prognosis in amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. The heart is the central organ of the vascular system in which endothelium function is critical for the circulatory homeostasis, but there are limited data on endothelial function in AL amyloidosis. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has been considered as a marker of endothelial activation and dysfunction, whereas a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 repeats 13 (ADAMTS-13) cleaves VWF multimers, but both have been associated with prognosis in cardiovascular disease. We measured the serum levels of VWF (VWF:Ag) and ADAMTS-13 antigens in 111 newly diagnosed patients with AL amyloidosis. The levels of VWF:Ag were significantly higher than in healthy controls; 76% of patients with AL had VWF:Ag levels higher than the upper levels of controls. There was no significant association of VWF:Ag levels with patterns of organ involvement, free light-chain levels, the levels of cardiac biomarkers, or renal dysfunction but correlated with low systolic blood pressure. VWF:Ag levels ≥230.0 U/dL were associated with higher probability of early death and poor survival independently of cardiac biomarkers and low systolic blood pressure (SBP). Moreover, among patients with Mayo stage III or stage IIIB (that is stage III with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NTproBNP] >8500 pg/mL) disease, VWF:Ag identified subgroups of patients with very poor outcome. Low ADAMTS-13 levels correlated with high levels of NTproBNP but had no independent prognostic significance. In conclusion, high VWF:Ag levels, probably representing endothelial dysfunction, are associated with prognosis in patients with AL amyloidosis, independently of other features of the disease or cardiac biomarkers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Liontos M, Trigka E-A, Korkolopoulou P, Tzannis K, Lainakis G, Koutsoukos K, Kostouros E, Lykka M, Papandreou CN, Karavasilis V, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of VEGF and mTOR pathway proteins in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients: a prognostic immunohistochemical profile for kidney cancer patients. World Journal of Urology [Internet]. 2016:1 - 9. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: To identify prognostic molecular profiles in patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, we performed immunohistochemical analysis for VEGF and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components. Methods: The immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, p85α, p110γ, PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K was studied in 79 patients with mRCC who received first-line treatment with sunitinib. Expression was correlated with clinicopathological features and survival. Results: VEGF was highly expressed (median H-Score 150), while positivity for the markers of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was: p85α 43/66 (65 %), p110γ41/60 (68 %), PTEN 32/64 (50 %), p-Akt57/63 (90 %), p-mTOR48/64 (75 %), p-4E-BP1 58/64 (90 %) and p-p70S6K 60/65 (92 %). No single immunohistochemical marker was found to have prognostic significance. Instead, the combination of increased p-mTOR and low VEGF expression was adversely correlated with overall survival (OS) (3.2 vs. 16.9 months, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry for VEGF and p-mTOR proteins may discriminate patients refractory to first-line sunitinib with poor prognosis. Prospective validation of our findings is needed. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Fotiou D, Gerotziafas G, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E. A review of the venous thrombotic issues associated with multiple myeloma. Expert Review of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;9(7):695 - 706. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications. The first reports of high VTE rates date back to 1999 but became more apparent with the introduction of novel agents in the treatment of MM and mostly with immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs; thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide). Areas covered: Currently thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients who receive IMiDs-based regimens and the type of thrombophrophylaxis is based on patient-, disease- and treatment-related risk factors. Making the distinction between the intrinsic risk of thrombosis in MM and the effect of therapy is crucial. The use of aspirin, low molecular weight heparins and warfarin are the recommended drugs but despite their appropriate use the rates of VTE are not completely eliminated. Expert commentary: Research into biomarkers of increased coagulability and their incorporation in risk assessment models could identify patients most likely to benefit from thromboprophylaxis but such models are not widely used in myeloma. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Liontos M, Anastasiou I, Bamias A, Dimopoulos M-A. DNA damage, tumor mutational load and their impact on immune responses against cancer. Annals of Translational Medicine [Internet]. 2016;4(14). WebsiteAbstract
Advances in immunotherapy have changed the therapeutic landscape in many malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have already received regulatory approval in melanomas, lung, renal and bladder carcinomas. A common feature of these neoplasms is the increased mutational load, related to a possible increase number of tumor neoantigens that are recognized by the immune system. The mechanisms that DNA damage could confer to the mutational load and the formation of neoantigens and how this could be exploited to advance our immunotherapeutic strategies is discussed in this review. © Annals of Translational Medicine.
Cohen YC, Joffe E, Benyamini N, Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E, Trestman S, Held-Kuznetsov V, Avivi I, Kastritis E. Primary failure of bortezomib in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma-understanding the magnitude, predictors, and significance. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(6):1382 - 1388. WebsiteAbstract
Botezomib-based induction is highly effective for the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). We investigated the outcomes of NDMM patients who failed to respond to bortezomib-based induction in a real-life clinical setting. In a cohort of 295 consecutive NDMM patients in 3 medical centers, 74 (25%) failed to achieve at least partial response after 4 induction cycles, and were classified as non-responsive. Compared to induction responders, they were older, more frequently anemic, had a higher incidence of del17p and ISS-3, and a worse performance status. In multivariable analysis, bortezomib-based induction failure occurred in 25% of patients and was the strongest independent factor predicting mortality with a 5-fold hazard ratio (95% CI 1.44-8.68). Three-year overall survival in responsive vs. non-responsive patients were 76% vs. 53%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Survival from time of salvage second-line treatment was significantly shorter among induction non-responders vs. responders (25 months vs. not-reached, p = 0.024). © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Current therapy guidelines for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology [Internet]. 2016;29(2):194 - 205. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is a B-cell neoplasm in which bone marrow is infiltrated by lymphoplasmacytic cells that secrete monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM). More than a decade ago, specific criteria were agreed to define diagnosis and symptomatic disease requiring therapy; however, treatment recommendations change as new options emerge. Treatment decisions consider specific disease characteristics (burden of disease, IgM levels, presence of cytopenias) and patient characteristics (age, comorbidities, toxicity). Recently, the impact of specific mutations (in MYD88 and CXCR4) in response to specific therapies has been reported, and this may affect treatment decisions in the future. Chemo-immunotherapy combinations based on rituximab with cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone, bendamustine or bortezomib/dexamethasone are indicated for most patients. The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib was recently approved for patients with WM, and is a new option for selected newly diagnosed or relapsing patients. New B-cell receptor inhibitors, second-generation proteasome inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are promising; however, more data are needed from high-quality clinical trials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Sergentanis TN, Kastritis E, Terpos E, Dimopoulos MA, Psaltopoulou T. Cytogenetics and Survival of Multiple Myeloma: Isolated and Combined Effects. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;16(6):335 - 340. WebsiteAbstract
Background A variety of clinical and laboratory prognostic factors for multiple myeloma (MM) have been addressed in published studies. The prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities is also under investigation. Patients and Methods The present study evaluated the potential prognostic role of cytogenetic events and their combinations in terms of overall survival in a large cohort of unselected patients with MM (n = 432). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification, International Staging System score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum calcium, platelet count, and blood hemoglobin. Results The presence of del(13q) (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.47), t(4;14) (adjusted HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.19-3.35), and/or del(17p) (adjusted HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.22-3.37) was independently associated with poorer overall survival. The poor prognosis seemed more pronounced among patients harboring combinations of 2 adverse cytogenetic abnormalities. In contrast, t(14;16), t(11;14), and add(1q21) were not associated with overall survival. The effect of bortezomib seemed rather minimal in the modification of the prognostic role mediated by del(17p). Conclusion The presence of del(13q), t(4;14), and del(17p), singly or in combination, seems to be an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with MM. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Koutsoukos K, Tzannis K, Christodoulou C, Karavasilis V, Bakoyiannis C, Makatsoris T, Papandreou CN, Pectasides D, Dimopoulos MA, Bamias A. Two cycles of adjuvant carboplatin in stage I seminoma: 8-year experience by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HECOG). World Journal of Urology [Internet]. 2016;34(6):853 - 857. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: Following the establishment of adjuvant carboplatin in stage I testicular seminoma as a standard, we adopted this treatment for all stage I seminoma patients. We report our 8-year experience and compare these results with our previous adjuvant etoposide/cisplatin (EP) strategy. Patients and methods: Patients with stage I seminoma, treated with adjuvant carboplatin and with a minimum follow-up of 1 year, were included. Two cycles of carboplatin [area under the curve (AUC) 6] were administered. Results: A total of 138 patients with median age of 34 years, treated from September 2003 to December 2011, were selected. There were 5 relapses [5-year relapse-free rate (RFR) 96.8 % (95 % confidence interval 91.6–98.8)]: 3 relapses at retroperitoneal lymph nodes, 1 relapse at the adrenal gland, and 1 isolated brain metastasis. Four patients with relapse were cured with salvage chemotherapy. All patients with relapse had tumor diameter ≥4 cm and/or age ≤34 years. Patients with at least 1 of the above risk factors (n = 111) had a significantly higher relapse rate compared with a similar population (n = 64) treated with 2 cycles of adjuvant EP: 5-year RFR was 95 % (SE 2 %) versus 100 % (SE 0 %), (p = 0.067). Conclusions: Age and tumor diameter were associated with relapse in stage I seminoma treated with adjuvant carboplatin. Although adjuvant carboplatin in patients with age ≤34 and/or tumor diameter ≥4 cm is associated with higher relapse rates than EP, the prognosis of these patients is excellent, and therefore, the use of less toxic treatment is justified. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Castillo JJ, Garcia-Sanz R, Hatjiharissi E, Kyle RA, Leleu X, McMaster M, Merlini G, Minnema MC, Morra E, Owen RG, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and initial evaluation of patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia: A Task Force from the 8th International Workshop on Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia. British Journal of Haematology [Internet]. 2016;175(1):77 - 86. WebsiteAbstract
The diagnosis of Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) can be challenging given the variety of signs and symptoms patients can present. Furthermore, once the diagnosis of WM is established, the initial evaluation should be thorough as well as appropriately directed. During the 8th International Workshop for WM in London, United Kingdom, a multi-institutional task force was formed to develop consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and initial evaluation of patients with WM. In this document, we present the results of the deliberations that took place to address these issues. We provide recommendations for history-taking and physical examination, laboratory studies, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy analysis and imaging studies. We also provide guidance on the initial evaluation of special situations, such as anaemia, hyperviscosity, neuropathy, Bing-Neel syndrome and amyloidosis. We hope these recommendations serve as a practical guidance to clinicians taking care of patients with a suspected or an established diagnosis of WM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Leblond V, Kastritis E, Advani R, Ansell SM, Buske C, Castillo JJ, García-Sanz R, Gertz M, Kimby E, Kyriakou C, et al. Treatment recommendations from the Eighth International Workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(10):1321 - 1328. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of the International Workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (IWWM). At IWWM-8, a task force for treatment recommendations was impanelled to review recently published and ongoing clinical trial data as well as the impact of new mutations (MYD88 and CXCR4) on treatment decisions, indications for B-cell receptor and proteasome inhibitors, and future clinical trial initiatives for WM patients. The panel concluded that therapeutic strategies in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics. Chemoimmunotherapy combinations with rituximab and cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib-dexamethasone provide durable responses and are still indicated in most patients. Approval of the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in the United States and Europe represents a novel and effective treatment option for both treatment-naive and relapsing patients. Other B-cell receptor inhibitors, second-generation proteasome inhibitors (eg, carfilzomib), and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are promising and may increase future treatment options. Active enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible was endorsed by the panel for most patients with WM. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Ziogas DC, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Carfilzomib for treating myeloma. Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs [Internet]. 2016;4(9):989 - 999. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, has been increasingly used in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) since its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 2012, either as a single agent or in combination with other known anti-myeloma treatments. Based on its efficacy and safety profile in the relapsed/refractory setting, carfilzomib is currently evaluated in patients with de novo MM. Areas covered: Here, we will shed some light on the introduction of carfilzomib as an effective anti-myeloma treatment, presenting its mechanism of action, its response rates and adverse events, as well as a summary of all clinical trials evaluating current dosage and schedule of administration. We will follow the entire path of drug’s development from the bench of preclinical studies to the market and bedside delivery. Revising the published evidence, we will try to answer all questions raised about the novel drug, expressing in parallel our site experience. Expert opinion: Carfilzomib, alone or in combination with other agents, is a welcome therapeutic option for MM patients with a well-defined toxicity profile. Results of ongoing trials are expected in order to update drug indications and maximize its therapeutic benefits in patients with refractory/relapse MM. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Fotiou D, Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E. Managing renal complications in multiple myeloma. Expert Review of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;9(9):839 - 850. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: About 20–40% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) will present with some degree of renal impairment (RI) and about 25% of patients will experience RI at later disease stages. Patients with MM and RI have poorer overall survival and are at higher risk of early death. Areas covered: The mechanisms of acute renal damage in MM are covered and the issues around diagnosis and renal evaluation response are discussed. The importance of optimal supportive care is stressed and the role and effectiveness of different anti-myeloma agents covered including the role of high cut-off hemodialysis, autologous stem cell transplantation and kidney transplant. Expert commentary: Outcomes of patients with RI and rates of renal recovery have improved with the use of novel anti-myeloma agents. Bortezomib-dexamethasone backbone regimes (±third agent) are the current first choice in newly diagnosed patients. In relapsed/refractory disease additional treatment options include newer novel agents. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Kokotis P, Schmelz M, Kostouros E, Karandreas N, Dimopoulos M-A. Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathy: A Long-Term Clinical and Neurophysiologic Follow-Up Study. Clinical Colorectal Cancer [Internet]. 2016;15(3):e133 - e140. WebsiteAbstract
Micro-Abstract Acute oxaliplatin neurotoxicity and chronic sensory cumulative neuropathy were investigated in a long-term study of 31 consecutive patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Our results improve the knowledge of acute neurotoxicity and support the finding of the persistence of the sensory nerve deficits for years after the cessation of oxaliplatin therapy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Gkotzamanidou M, Terpos E, Bamia C, Munshi NC, Dimopoulos MA, Souliotis VL. DNA repair of myeloma plasma cells correlates with clinical outcome: The effect of the nonhomologous end-joining inhibitor SCR7. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(9):1214 - 1225. WebsiteAbstract
DNA repair activity of malignant cells seems to influence therapeutic outcome and patients' survival. Herein, we investigated the mechanistic basis for the link between DNA repair efficiency and response to antimyeloma therapy. Nucleotide excision repair (NER), interstrand cross-links repair (ICL/R), double-strand breaks repair (DSB/R), and chromatin structure were evaluated in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (melphalan-sensitive RPMI8226; melphalan-resistant LR5) and bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) from MM patients who responded (n = 17) or did not respond (n = 9) to subsequent melphalan therapy. The effect of DSB/R inhibition was also evaluated. Responders' BMPCs showed slower rates of NER and DSB/R (P < .0022), similar rates of ICL/R, and more condensed chromatin structure compared with nonresponders. Moreover, apoptosis rates of BMPCs were inversely correlated with individual DNA repair efficiency and were higher in responders' cells compared with those of nonresponders (P = .0011). Similarly, RPMI8226 cells showed slower rates of NER and DSB/R, comparable rates of ICL/R, more condensed chromatin structure, and higher sensitivity than LR5 cells. Interestingly, cotreatment of BMPCs or cell lines with DSB/R inhibitors significantly reduced the rates ofDSB/R and increasedmelphalan sensitivity of the cells, with the nonhomologous end-joining inhibitor SCR7 showing the strongest effect. Together, responders' BMPCs are characterized by lower efficiencies of NER and DSB/R mechanisms, resulting in higher accumulation of the extremely cytotoxic ICLs andDSBs lesions,which in turn triggers the induction of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, the enhancement of melphalan cytotoxicity by DSB/R inhibition offers a promising strategy toward improvement of existing antimyeloma regimens. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Yui JC, Van Keer J, Weiss BM, Waxman AJ, Palmer MB, D'Agati VD, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA, Vij R, Bansal D, et al. Proteasome inhibitor associated thrombotic microangiopathy. American Journal of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;91(9):E348 - E352. WebsiteAbstract
A variety of medications have been implicated in the causation of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Recently, a few case reports have emerged of TMA attributed to the proteasome inhibitors (PI) bortezomib and carfilzomib in patients with multiple myeloma. The aim of this case series was to better characterize the role of PI in the etiology of drug-induced TMA. We describe eleven patients from six medical centers from around the world who developed TMA while being treated with PI. The median time between medication initiation and diagnosis of TMA was 21 days (range 5 days to 17 months). Median laboratory values at diagnosis included hemoglobin—7.5 g dL−1, platelet count—20 × 109/L, LDH—698 U L−1, creatinine—3.12 mg dL−1. No patient had any other cause of TMA, including ADAMTS13 inhibition, other malignancy or use of any other medication previously associated with TMA. Nine patients had resolution of TMA without evidence of hemolysis after withdrawal of PI. Two patients had stabilization of laboratory values but persistent evidence of hemolysis despite medication withdrawal. One patient had recurrence of TMA with rechallenge of PI. There is a strong level of evidence that PI can cause DITMA. In evaluating patients with suspected TMA, PI use should be recognized as a potential etiology, and these medications should be discontinued promptly if thought to be the cause of TMA. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E348–E352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Avet-Loiseau H, Fonseca R, Siegel D, Dimopoulos MA, Špička I, Masszi T, Hájek R, Rosiñol L, Goranova-Marinova V, Mihaylov G, et al. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(9):1174 - 1180. WebsiteAbstract
The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n548; Rd, n552) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standardrisk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.
Zagouri F, Roussou M, Kastritis E, Gavriatopoulou M, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Kanellias N, Kalapanida D, Christoulas D, Migkou M, Terpos E, et al. Lenalidomide with low- or intermediate-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(8):1776 - 1780. WebsiteAbstract
Abstract: To compare the outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who were treated with lenalidomide combined with high versus low dose of dexamethasone. One hundred forty consecutive relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients who received lenalidomide with dexamethasone, in two consecutive time periods, were divided into two groups: group RD (70 consecutive patients in the first period) who received lenalidomide with intermediate doses of dexamethasone and group Rd (70 consecutive patients in the more recent period) who received lenalidomide with low-dose dexamethasone. 62% and 73% of patients who received RD and Rd (p = 0.148) achieved at least a partial response, accordingly. The median OS was 20 and 41 months for the RD and the Rd group, accordingly. In the multivariate analysis, Rd was associated with improved PFS. More patients treated with RD developed grade 3&4 neutropenia and fatigue. It seems that Rd is at least as effective as RD. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Karavasilis V, Papadimitriou C, Gogas H, Kouvatseas G, Pentheroudakis G, Koutras A, Christodoulou C, Bafaloukos D, Samantas E, Pisanidis N, et al. Safety and Tolerability of Anthracycline-Containing Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Elderly High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Breast Cancer [Internet]. 2016;16(4):291 - 298.e3. WebsiteAbstract
Micro-Abstract We characterized the feasibility and toxicity profile of anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy in women >65 years of age with early breast cancer. Elderly breast cancer patients derive clinical benefit comparable with that of younger patients, mainly at the cost of increased risk of hematological toxicity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Ziogas DC, Kastritis E, Terpos E, Roussou M, Migkou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Spanomichou D, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Fotiou D, Panagiotidis I, et al. Hematologic and renal improvement of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease after treatment with bortezomib-based regimens. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016:1 - 8. WebsiteAbstract
Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is characterized by non-organized immunoglobulin-fragments along renal basement membranes with subsequent organ deterioration. Treatment is directed against the immunoglobulin-producing clone. We treated 18 MIDD patients with bortezomib-based regimens (12 received bortezomib-dexamethasone, 6 bortezomib-dexamethasone with cyclophosphamide). Eleven (61%) patients achieved a hematologic response, but only 6 (33.3%) reached to a complete (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR). Regarding renal outcomes 77.8 and 55.6% had ≥30 and ≥50% reduction of proteinuria, respectively, but 33.3% ended up in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among patients with CR or VGPR, median eGFR improvement was 7.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 and none progressed to ESRD, but no significant renal recovery was observed in patients achieving a partial response or less, with 50% progressing to dialysis. Pretreatment eGFR seems to influence renal prognosis. Bortezomib-based treatment is considered an effective approach in MIDD and reaching to a deep hematologic response (≥VGPR) conditionally controls further renal declining. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Moreau P, Weisel KC, Song KW, Gibson CJ, Saunders O, Sternas LA, Hong K, Zaki MH, Dimopoulos MA. Relationship of response and survival in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma treated with pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in the MM-003 trial randomized phase III trial (NIMBUS). Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(12):2839 - 2847. WebsiteAbstract
Relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients have poor overall survival (OS). Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (POM + LoDEX) significantly extends OS in RRMM vs. high-dose dexamethasone. Survival of patients with stable disease (SD) was compared to patients with progressive disease (PD) or ≥ partial response (≥PR) at cycles (C) 3, 5, and 7. Among 302 patients randomized to POM + LoDEX, at C3 19.2% achieved ≥ PR, 38.4% SD, and 14.6% PD. Patients with SD at C3 (17.4%) and C5 (13.6%) showed improved responses at C7. Median OS from randomization by response at C3 was 22.4 months for ≥ PR (n = 58, HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.40–1.08, p = 0.0976 vs. SD), 16.2 months for SD (n = 116), and 6.3 months for PD (n = 44, HR 3.43; 95% CI 2.23–5.27, p < 0.0001 vs. SD). Similar patterns were observed for C5 and C7. Results show that POM + LoDEX should be a standard treatment after lenalidomide and bortezomib, including in SD patients. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Siegel DS, Weisel KC, Dimopoulos MA, Baz R, Richardson P, Delforge M, Song KW, San Miguel JF, Moreau P, Goldschmidt H, et al. Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and moderate renal impairment: a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(12):2833 - 2838. WebsiteAbstract
Renal impairment (RI) is a major comorbidity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here we present the pooled safety and efficacy analysis of three clinical trials (MM-002, MM-003, and MM-010) of pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone (POM + LoDEX) in patients with moderate RI (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 30 to <60 mL/min) and without RI (≥ 60 mL/min). Trial protocols were approved by the institutional review board of each site involved. Patients with RI were older than patients without RI, although other baseline characteristics were similar. The dosing and safety profile of POM + LoDEX was similar across RI subgroups. Median overall response rate, progression-free survival, time to progression, and duration of response were not significantly different between RI subgroups. However, patients with vs. without RI had significantly shorter median overall survival (10.5 vs. 14.0 months, respectively; p =.004). This analysis demonstrates that POM + LoDEX is a safe and effective treatment for patients with moderate RI. The trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00833833 (MM-002), NCT01311687 (MM-003), and NCT01712789 (MM-010) and at EudraCT as 2010-019820-30 (MM-003) and 2012-001888-78 (MM-010). © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Stewart AK, Dimopoulos MA, Masszi T, Špička I, Oriol A, Hájek R, Rosiñol L, Siegel DS, Niesvizky R, Jakubowiak AJ, et al. Health-related quality-of-life results from the open-label, randomized, phase III ASPIRE trial evaluating carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patientswith relapsed multiple myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(32):3921 - 3930. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose To determine the effects of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in the Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone Versus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for the Treatment of Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma (ASPIRE) trial. Methods Patients with relapsed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned to receive KRd or Rd. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and myeloma-specific module were administered at baseline; day 1 of cycles 3, 6, 12, and 18; and after treatment. The Global Health Status/Quality of Life (GHS/QoL) scale and seven subscales (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, physical functioning, role functioning, disease symptoms, and adverse effects of treatment) were compared between groups using a mixed model for repeated measures. The percentages of responders with ≥ 5- or 15-point GHS/QoL improvement at each cycle were compared between groups. Results Baseline questionnaire compliance was excellent (94.1% of randomly assigned patients). KRd patients had higher GHS/QoL scores versus Rd patients over 18 treatment cycles (two-sided P<.001). The minimal important difference was met at cycle 12 (5.6 points) and approached at cycle 18 (4.8 points). There was no difference between groups for the other prespecified subscales from ASPIRE. A higher proportion of KRd patients met the GHS/QoL responder definition (≥ 5-point improvement) with statistical differences at cycle 12 (KRd v Rd patients, 25.5% v 17.4%, respectively) and 18 (KRd v Rd patients, 24.2% v 12.9%, respectively). Conclusion KRd improves GHS/QoL without negatively affecting patient-reported symptoms when compared with Rd. These data further support the benefit of KRd in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Gavriatopoulou M, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Current treatments for renal failure due to multiple myeloma. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy [Internet]. 2016;17(16):2165 - 2177. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Renal impairment (RI) is one of the most common complication of multiple myeloma (MM). RI is present in almost 20% of MM patients at diagnosis and in 40%-50% of patients during the course of their disease. Areas covered: Biology along with tools for diagnosis and management of RI are reported in this paper. Papers published in PubMed and reported abstracts up to May 2016 were used. Expert opinion: Moderate and severe RI increases the risk of early death; thus rapid intervention and initiation of anti-myeloma treatment is essential and improves renal outcomes in RI patients. Bortezomib and dexamethasone triplet combinations are the current standard of therapy for MM patients with acute kidney injury due to cast nephropathy; they offer high rates of both anti-myeloma response and renal recovery. Thalidomide and lenalidomide may be used in bortezomib refractory patients. In the relapsed/refractory setting additional treatment options such as carfilzomib, pomalidomide and monoclonal antibodies are available; however, there is limited data for their effects on patients with RI. High dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered in otherwise eligible patients with RI. Finally, high cut-off hemodialysis membranes do not seem to offer significant additive effects on anti-myeloma therapies. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
San-Miguel JF, Hungria VTM, Yoon S-S, Beksac M, Dimopoulos MA, Elghandour A, Jedrzejczak WW, Günther A, Nakorn TN, Siritanaratkul N, et al. Overall survival of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma treated with panobinostat or placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (the PANORAMA 1 trial): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. The Lancet Haematology [Internet]. 2016;3(11):e506 - e515. WebsiteAbstract
Background Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone significantly increased median progression-free survival compared with placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone in the phase 3 PANORAMA 1 trial. Here, we present the final overall survival analysis for this trial. Methods PANORAMA 1 is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial of patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma with one to three previous treatments. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive panobinostat (20 mg orally) or placebo, with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg orally), over two distinct treatment phases. In treatment phase 1 (eight 3-week cycles), patients received: panobinostat or placebo on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12; bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11; and dexamethasone on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. During treatment phase 2 (four 6-week cycles with a 2 weeks on, 1 week off schedule), panobinostat or placebo was given three times a week, bortezomib was administered once a week, and dexamethasone was given on the days of and following bortezomib administration. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; overall survival was a key secondary endpoint. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01023308. Findings Between Jan 21, 2010, and Feb 29, 2012, 768 patients were enrolled into the study and randomly assigned to receive either panobinostat (n=387) or placebo (n=381), plus bortezomib and dexamethasone. At data cutoff (June 29, 2015), 415 patients had died. Median overall survival was 40·3 months (95% CI 35·0–44·8) in those who received panobinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus 35·8 months (29·0–40·6) in those who received placebo, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·78–1·14; p=0·54). Of patients who had received at least two previous regimens including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory drug, median overall survival was 25·5 months (95% CI 19·6–34·3) in 73 patients who received panobinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus 19·5 months (14·1–32·5) in 74 who received placebo (HR 1·01, 95% CI 0·68–1·50). Interpretation The overall survival benefit with panobinostat over placebo with bortezomib and dexamethasone was modest. However, optimisation of the regimen could potentially prolong treatment duration and improve patients' outcomes, although further trials will be required to confirm this. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Hulin C, Belch A, Shustik C, Petrucci MT, Dührsen U, Lu J, Song K, Rodon P, Pégourié B, Garderet L, et al. Updated outcomes and impact of age with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in the randomized, phase III FIRST trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(30):3609 - 3617. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: This analysis of the FIRST trial in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) ineligible for stem-cell transplantation examined updated outcomes and impact of patient age. Patients and Methods: Patients with untreated symptomatic MM were randomly assigned at a one-to-one-to-one ratio to lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks), stratified by age (≤ 75 v > 75 years), disease stage (International Staging System stage I/II v III), and country. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Rd continuous and MPT were primary comparators. Results: Between August 21, 2008, and March 7, 2011, 1,623 patients were enrolled (Rd continuous, n = 535; Rd18, n = 541; MPT, n = 547), including 567 (35%) age older than 75 years. Higher rates of advanced-stage disease and renal impairment were observed in patients older than 75 versus 75 years of age or younger. Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death compared with MPT by 31% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.80; P <.001) overall, 36% (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.77; P <.001) in patients age 75 years or younger, and 20% (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.03; P =.084) in those age older than 75 years. Median overall survival was longer with Rd continuous than with MPT, including a 14-month difference in patients age older than 75 years. Progression-free survival with Rd18 was similar to that with MPT, and overall survival with Rd18 was marginally inferior to that with Rd continuous. Rates of grade 3 to 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were similar for Rd continuous-treated patients age 75 years or older and those age older than 75 years; however, older patients had more frequent lenalidomide dose reductions. Conclusion: Results support Rd continuous treatment as a new standard of care for stem-cell transplantation-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed MM of all ages. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Gavriatopoulou M, Kastritis E, Kyrtsonis M-C, Vassilakopoulos TP, Roussou M, Fotiou D, Migkou M, Mpakiri M, Tasidou A, Terpos E, et al. Phase 2 study of ofatumumab, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in relapsed/refractory Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016:1 - 3. Website
Terpos E, Christoulas D, Kastritis E, Bagratuni T, Gavriatopoulou M, Roussou M, Papatheodorou A, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Kanellias N, Liakou C, et al. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma. Blood Cancer Journal [Internet]. 2016;6(10):e482. WebsiteAbstract
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. © 2016 The Author(s).
Dimopoulos MA, Oriol A, Nahi H, San-Miguel J, Bahlis NJ, Usmani SZ, Rabin N, Orlowski RZ, Komarnicki M, Suzuki K, et al. Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2016;375(14):1319 - 1331. WebsiteAbstract
BACKGROUND: Daratumumab showed promising efficacy alone and with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in a phase 1-2 study involving patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 569 patients with multiple myeloma who had received one or more previous lines of therapy to receive lenalidomide and dexamethasone either alone (control group) or in combination with daratumumab (daratumumab group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 13.5 months in a protocol-specified interim analysis, 169 events of disease progression or death were observed (in 53 of 286 patients [18.5%] in the daratumumab group vs. 116 of 283 [41.0%] in the control group; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.52; P<0.001 by stratified log-rank test). The Kaplan- Meier rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 83.2% (95% CI, 78.3 to 87.2) in the daratumumab group, as compared with 60.1% (95% CI, 54.0 to 65.7) in the control group. A significantly higher rate of overall response was observed in the daratumumab group than in the control group (92.9% vs. 76.4%, P<0.001), as was a higher rate of complete response or better (43.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.001). In the daratumumab group, 22.4% of the patients had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells), as compared with 4.6% of those in the control group (P<0.001); results below the threshold for minimal residual disease were associated with improved outcomes. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 during treatment were neutropenia (in 51.9% of the patients in the daratumumab group vs. 37.0% of those in the control group), thrombocytopenia (in 12.7% vs. 13.5%), and anemia (in 12.4% vs. 19.6%). Daratumumab-associated infusion-related reactions occurred in 47.7% of the patients and were mostly of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of daratumumab to lenalidomide and dexamethasone significantly lengthened progression-free survival among patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Daratumumab was associated with infusion-related reactions and a higher rate of neutropenia than the control therapy. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Dimopoulos MA, Sonneveld P, Sun H. The author and colleagues reply: Bueno. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2016;375(25):2497 - 2498. Website
Bamias A, Peroukidis S, Stamatopoulou S, Tzannis K, Koutsoukos K, Andreadis C, Bozionelou V, Pistalmatzian N, Papatsoris A, Stravodimos K, et al. Utilization of Systemic Chemotherapy in Advanced Urothelial Cancer: A Retrospective Collaborative Study by the Hellenic Genitourinary Cancer Group (HGUCG). Clinical Genitourinary Cancer [Internet]. 2016;14(2):e153 - e159. WebsiteAbstract
Background Advanced urothelial cancer (AUCa) is associated with poor long-term survival. Two major concerns are related to nonexposure to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and poor outcome after relapse. Our purpose was to record patterns of practice in AUCa in Greece, focusing on first-line treatment and management of relapsed disease. Methods Patients with AUCa treated from 2011 to 2013 were included in the analysis. Fitness for cisplatin was assessed by recently established criteria. Results Of 327 patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, 179 (55%) did not receive cisplatin. Criteria for unfitness for cisplatin were: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) ≥ 2, 21%; creatinine clearance ≤ 60 mL/min, 55%; hearing impairment, 8%; neuropathy, 1%; and cardiac failure, 5%. Forty-six patients (27%) did not fulfill any criterion for unfitness for cisplatin. The main reasons for these deviations were comorbidities (28%) and advanced age (32%). Seventy-four (68%) of 109 patients who experienced a relapse received second-line chemotherapy. The most frequent reason for not offering second-line chemotherapy was poor PS or limited life expectancy (66%). Conclusion In line with international data, approximately 50% of Greek patients with AUCa do not receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, although 27% of them were suitable for such treatment. In addition, about one third of patients with relapse did not receive second-line chemotherapy because of poor PS or short life expectancy. Enforcing criteria for fitness for cisplatin and earlier diagnosis of relapse represent 2 targets for improvement in current treatment practice for AUCa. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Caers J, de Larrea CF, Leleu X, Heusschen R, Zojer N, Decaux O, Kastritis E, Minnema M, Jurczyszyn A, Beguin Y, et al. The changing landscape of smoldering multiple myeloma: A european perspective. Oncologist [Internet]. 2016;21(3):333 - 342. WebsiteAbstract
Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder and bridges monoclonal gammo- pathyof undetermined significance to multiple myeloma (MM), based on higher levels of circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin and bone marrow plasmocytosis without end-organ damage. Until a Spanish study reported fewer MM-related events and better overall survival among patients with high- risk SMM treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, prior studies had failed to show improved survival with earlier intervention,although a reduction in skeletal-related events (without any impact on disease progression) has been described with bisphosphonate use. Risk factors have now been defined, and a subset of ultra-high-risk patients have been reclassified by the International Myeloma Working Group as MM, and thus will require optimal MM treatment, based on biomarkers that identify patients with a >80% risk of progression. The number of these redefined patients is small (~10%), but important to unravel, because theirriskof progression to overt MM is substantial ($80% within 2 years). Patients with a high-risk cytogenetic profile are not yet considered for early treatment, because groups are heterogeneous and risk factors other than cytogenetics are deemed to weight higher. Because patients with ultra-high- risk SMM are now considered as MM and may be treated as such, concerns exist that earlier therapy may increase the risk of selecting resistant clones and induce side effects and costs. Therefore, an even more accurate identification of patients who would benefit from interventions needs to be performed, and clinical judgment and careful discussion of pros and cons of treatment initiation need to be undertaken. For the majority of SMM patients, the standard of care remains observation until development of symptomatic MM occurs, encouraging participation in ongoing and upcoming SMM/early MM clinical trials, as well as consideration of bisphosphonate use in patients with early bone loss. © AlphaMed Press 2016.
Richardson PG, Hungria VTM, Yoon S-S, Beksac M, Dimopoulos MA, Elghandour A, Jedrzejczak WW, Guenther A, Na Nakorn T, Siritanaratkul N, et al. Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone in previously treated multiple myeloma: Outcomes by prior treatment. Blood [Internet]. 2016;127(6):713 - 721. WebsiteAbstract
Panobinostat is a potent pan-deacetylase inhibitor that affects the growth and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through alteration of epigenetic mechanisms and protein metabolism. Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (PAN-BTZ-Dex) led to a significant increase in progression-free survival (PFS) vs placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (Pbo-BTZ-Dex) in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractoryMMin the phase 3PANORAMA1 trial. This subgroup analysis evaluated outcomes in patients in the PANORAMA 1 trial based on prior treatment: A prior immunomodulatory drug (IMiD; n 5 485), prior bortezomib plus an IMiD (n 5 193), and ≥2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD (n5147). Median PFS with PAN-BTZ-Dex vs Pbo-BTZ-Dex across subgroups was as follows: prior IMiD (12.3 vs 7.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.68), prior bortezomib plus IMiD (10.6 vs 5.8 months; HR, 0.52;95%CI, 0.36-0.76),and ≥2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD (12.5 vs 4.7 months; HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.72). Common grade 3/4 adverse events and laboratory abnormalities in patients who received PAN-BTZ-Dex across the prior treatment groups included thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, diarrhea, and asthenia/ fatigue. Incidence of on-treatment deaths among patients who received prior bortezomib and an IMiD (regardless of number of prior regimens) was similar between treatment arms. This analysis demonstrated a clear PFS benefit of 7.8 months with PAN-BTZ-Dex among patients who received ‡2 prior regimens including bortezomib and an IMiD, a population with limited treatment options and poorer prognosis. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01023308. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E, Ghobrial IM. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia: A clinical perspective in the era of novel therapeutics. Annals of Oncology [Internet]. 2016;27(2):233 - 240. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a rare, low-grade malignancy with no established standard of care. Rituximab regimens are most commonly used, supported by their efficacy in hematologic malignancies, including WM. A growing number of investigational regimens for WM have been evaluated in phase II clinical trials, including single-agent and combination strategies that include newer-generation monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab and alemtuzumab), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib and carfilzomib), immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway inhibitors (everolimus and perifosene), a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ibrutinib), and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (panobinostat). Other novel agents are in early-stage development for WM. International treatment guidelines for WM suggest suitable regimens in the newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory settings, in accordance with patient age, disease presentation, and efficacy and safety profiles of particular drugs. These factors must be considered when choosing appropriate therapy for individual patients with WM, to maximize response and prolong survival, while minimizing the risk of adverse events. This review article provides a clinical perspective of the modern management of patients with WM, in the context of available trial data for novel regimens and recently updated treatment guidelines. © The Author 2015.
Siegel DS, Dimopoulos M, Jagannath S, Goldschmidt H, Durrant S, Kaufman JL, Leleu X, Nagler A, Offner F, Graef T, et al. VANTAGE 095: An International, Multicenter, Open-Label Study of Vorinostat (MK-0683) in Combination with Bortezomib in Patients with Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;16(6):329 - 334.e1. WebsiteAbstract
Background The present global, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase IIb study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral vorinostat combined with standard doses of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma considered refractory to novel myeloma agents. Patients and Methods Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, had received ≥ 2 previous regimens, had disease refractory to ≥ 1 previous bortezomib-containing regimen, and had received ≥ 1 dose of an immunomodulatory drug (thalidomide or lenalidomide)-based regimen. The patients received 21-day cycles of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) plus oral vorinostat (400 mg/d on days 1-14). Oral dexamethasone, 20 mg, on the day of and the day after each dose of bortezomib could be added for patients with progressive disease after 2 cycles or no change after 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Results The objective response rate was 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 6.6%-17.7%), and the median duration of response was 211 days (range, 64-550 days). The median overall survival duration was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.5-14.4 months), with a 2-year survival rate of 32%. The frequently reported adverse events were thrombocytopenia (69.7%), nausea (57.0%), diarrhea (53.5%), anemia (52.1%), and fatigue (48.6%); the overall safety profile was consistent with that of bortezomib and vorinostat. Conclusion The combination of vorinostat and bortezomib is active in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to novel treatment modalities and offers a new therapeutic option for this difficult-to-treat patient population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00773838). © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Bamias A, Tsantoulis P, Zilli T, Papatsoris A, Caparrotti F, Kyratsas C, Tzannis K, Stravodimos K, Chrisofos M, Wirth GJ, et al. Outcome of patients with nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer not undergoing cystectomy after treatment with noncisplatin-based chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy: a retrospective analysis. Cancer Medicine [Internet]. 2016;5(6):1098 - 1107. WebsiteAbstract
Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combinations can be used in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) not undergoing cystectomy. Nevertheless, unfitness for cystectomy is frequently associated with unfitness for other therapeutic modalities. We report the outcome of patients with MIBC who did not undergo cystectomy and did not receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Selection criteria for the study were nonmetastatic MIBC, no cystectomy, no cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should have been used aside from TURBT. Forty-nine patients (median age 79), managed between April 2001 and January 2012, were included in this analysis. Median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 5, while 76% were unfit for cisplatin. Treatment included radiotherapy (n = 7), carboplatin-based chemotherapy (n = 25), carboplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 10), and radiochemotherapy (n = 7). Five-year event-free rate was 26% (standard error [SE] = 7) for overall survival, 23% (SE = 7) for progression-free survival, and 30 (SE = 8) for cancer-specific survival (CSS). Patients who were treated with combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy had significantly longer CSS compared to those treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy only (5-year CSS rate: 16% [SE 8] vs. 63% [SE 15], P = 0.053). Unfit-for-cystectomy patients frequently receive suboptimal nonsurgical treatment. Their outcome was poor. Combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy produced better outcomes and should be prospectively evaluated. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Trachana S-P, Pilalis E, Gavalas NG, Tzannis K, Papadodima O, Liontos M, Rodolakis A, Vlachos G, Thomakos N, Haidopoulos D, et al. The development of an angiogenic protein "signature" in ovarian cancer ascites as a tool for biologic and prognostic profiling. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2016;11(6). WebsiteAbstract
Advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) is one of the leading lethal gynecological cancers in developed countries. Based on the important role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer oncogenesis and expansion, we hypothesized that the development of an "angiogenic signature" might be helpful in prediction of prognosis and efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies in this disease. Sixty-nine samples of ascitic fluid- 35 from platinum sensitive and 34 from platinum resistant patients managed with cytoreductive surgery and 1st-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy- were analyzed using the Proteome Profiler™ Human Angiogenesis Array Kit, screening for the presence of 55 soluble angiogenesis-related factors. A protein profile based on the expression of a subset of 25 factors could accurately separate resistant from sensitive patients with a success rate of approximately 90%. The protein profile corresponding to the "sensitive" subset was associated with significantly longer PFS (8 [95% Confidence Interval {CI}: 8-9] vs. 20 months [95% CI: 15-28]; Hazard ratio {HR}: 8.3, p<0.001) and OS (20.5 months [95% CI: 13.5-30] vs. 74 months [95% CI: 36-not reached]; HR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.8-11.2]; p<0.001). This prognostic performance was superior to that of stage, histology and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ascites. In conclusion, we developed an "angiogenic signature" for patients with AOC, which can be used, after appropriate validation, as a prognostic marker and a tool for selection for anti-angiogenic therapies. © 2016 Trachana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Fountzilas G, Giannoulatou E, Alexopoulou Z, Zagouri F, Timotheadou E, Papadopoulou K, Lakis S, Bobos M, Poulios C, Sotiropoulou M, et al. TP53 mutations and protein immunopositivity may predict for poor outcome but also for trastuzumab benefit in patients with early breast cancer treated in the adjuvant setting. Oncotarget [Internet]. 2016;7(22):32731 - 32753. WebsiteAbstract
Background: We investigated the impact of PIK3CA and TP53 mutations and p53 protein status on the outcome of patients who had been treated with adjuvant anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy within clinical trials in the pre- and post-trastuzumab era. Results: TP53 and PIK3CA mutations were found in 380 (21.5%) and 458 (25.9%) cases, respectively, including 104 (5.9%) co-mutated tumors; p53 immunopositivity was observed in 848 tumors (53.5%). TP53 mutations (p < 0.001) and p53 protein positivity (p = 0.001) were more frequent in HER2-positive and triple negative (TNBC) tumors, while PIK3CA mutations were more frequent in Luminal A/B tumors (p < 0.001). TP53 mutation status and p53 protein expression but not PIK3CA mutation status interacted with trastuzumab treatment for disease-free survival; patients with tumors bearing TP53 mutations or immunopositive for p53 protein fared better when treated with trastuzumab, while among patients treated with trastuzumab those with the above characteristics fared best (interaction p = 0.017 for mutations; p = 0.015 for IHC). Upon multivariate analysis the above interactions remained significant in HER2-positive patients; in the entire cohort, TP53 mutations were unfavorable in patients with Luminal A/B (p = 0.003) and TNBC (p = 0.025); p53 immunopositivity was strongly favorable in patients treated with trastuzumab (p = 0.009). Materials and Methods: TP53 and PIK3CA mutation status was examined in 1766 paraffin tumor DNA samples with informative semiconductor sequencing results. Among these, 1585 cases were also informative for p53 protein status assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC; 10% positivity cut-off). Conclusions: TP53 mutations confer unfavorable prognosis in patients with Luminal A/B and TNBC tumors, while p53 immunopositivity may predict for trastuzumab benefit in the adjuvant setting.
Dimopoulos MA, Roussou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Psimenou E, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Migkou M, Matsouka C, Mparmparousi D, Gika D, Kafantari E, et al. Bortezomib-based triplets are associated with a high probability of dialysis independence and rapid renal recovery in newly diagnosed myeloma patients with severe renal failure or those requiring dialysis. American Journal of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;91(5):499 - 502. WebsiteAbstract
Renal failure (RF) is a common and severe complication of symptomatic myeloma, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Such patients are commonly excluded from clinical trials. Bortezomib/dexamethasone (VD)-based regimens are the backbone of the treatment of newly diagnosed MM patients who present with severe RF even those requiring dialysis. We analyzed the outcomes of 83 consecutive bortezomib-treated patients with severe RF (eGFR<30 ml/min/1.73 m2), of which 31 (37%) required dialysis. By IMWG renal response criteria, 54 (65%) patients achieved at least MRrenal, including CRrenal in 35% and PRrenal in 12%. Triplet combinations (i.e., VD plus a third agent) versus VD alone were associated with higher rates of renal responses (72 vs. 50%; P=0.06). Fifteen of the 31 (48%) patients became dialysis independent within a median of 217 days (range 11-724). Triplets were associated with a higher probability of dialysis discontinuation (57 vs. 35%). Serum free light chain (sFLC) level ≥11,550 mg/L was associated with lower rates of major renal response, longer time to major renal response, lower probability, and longer time to dialysis discontinuation. Rapid myeloma response (≥PR within the first month) was also associated with higher rates of renal response. Patients who became dialysis-independent had longer survival than those remaining on dialysis. In conclusion, VD-based triplets are associated with a significant probability of renal response and dialysis discontinuation, improving the survival of patients who became dialysis independent. Rapid disease response is important for renal recovery and sFLCs are predictive of the probability and of the time required for renal response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moreau P, Van De Donk NWCJ, Miguel JS, Lokhorst H, Nahi H, Ben-Yehuda D, Cavo M, Cook G, Delforge M, Einsele H, et al. Practical Considerations for the Use of Daratumumab, a Novel CD38 Monoclonal Antibody, in Myeloma. Drugs [Internet]. 2016;76(8):853 - 867. WebsiteAbstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a recent addition to multiple myeloma (MM) therapies and a number of mAbs directed at myeloma cell surface molecules are in development. Daratumumab is a CD38 mAb that has demonstrated substantial activity and good tolerability in four phase I, phase I/II and phase II studies as monotherapy, as well as in combination with current standard treatments in MM. The positive results obtained in the relapsed/refractory setting in patients with advanced-stage disease and in a small number of patients with newly diagnosed disease provide the rationale for the investigation of the agent in a number of ongoing phase III trials. mAbs are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy; however, their use requires other special considerations. Such factors include those common to all mAbs, namely infusion-related reactions, but also factors that are observed with mAbs used in myeloma, such as interference with response assessment, or factors that are related to CD38 mAbs such as daratumumab, for instance blood typing interference. Our review provides an overview of the results from the daratumumab clinical trials conducted to date, as well as practical management considerations for the use of daratumumab based on our experience with the agent. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Dimopoulos MA, Sonneveld P, Leung N, Merlini G, Ludwig H, Kastritis E, Goldschmidt H, Joshua D, Orlowski RZ, Powles R, et al. International Myeloma working group recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Myeloma-Related Renal Impairment. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(13):1544 - 1557. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose The aim of the International Myeloma Working Group was to develop practical recommendations for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma-related renal impairment (RI). Methods Recommendations were based on published data through December 2015, and were developed using the system developed by the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Working Group. Recommendations All patients with myeloma at diagnosis and at disease assessment should have serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and electrolytes measurements as well as free light chain, if available, and urine electrophoresis of a sample from a 24-hour urine collection (grade A). The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration, preferably, or the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula should be used for the evaluation of estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with stabilized serum creatinine (grade A). International Myeloma Working Group criteria for renal reversibility should be used (grade B). For themanagement of RI in patientswithmultiplemyeloma, high fluid intake is indicated along with antimyeloma therapy (grade B). The use of high-cutoff hemodialysis membranes in combination with antimyeloma therapy can be considered (grade B). Bortezomib-based regimens remain the cornerstone of the management of myeloma-related RI (grade A). High-dose dexamethasone should be administered at least for the first month of therapy (grade B). Thalidomide is effective in patients with myeloma with RI, and no dose modifications are needed (grade B). Lenalidomide is effective and safe, mainly in patients with mild to moderate RI (grade B); for patients with severe RI or on dialysis, lenalidomide should be given with closemonitoring for hematologic toxicity (grade B) with dose reduction as needed. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (with melphalan 100 mg/m2 to 140 mg/m2) is feasible in patients with RI (grade C). Carfilzomib can be safely administered to patients with creatinine clearance . 15 mL/min, whereas ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone can be safely administered to patients with creatinine clearance . 30 mL/min (grade A). © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Zagouri F, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Emerging antibodies for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs [Internet]. 2016;21(2):225 - 237. WebsiteAbstract
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Monoclonal antibodies mark the beginning of a new era in the context of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment. Numerous antibodies have been tested or are currently in development for patients with MM, in order to improve tolerability and quality of life. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews emerging antibodies for the treatment of MM i.e. elotuzumab, daratumumab, MOR03087, isatuximab, bevacizumab, cetuximab, siltuximab, tocilizumab, elsilimomab, azintrel, rituximab, tositumomab, milatuzumab, lucatumumab, dacetuzumab, figitumumab, dalotuzumab, AVE1642, tabalumab, pembrolizumab, pidilizumab, nivolumab. Expert opinion: Amongst these antibodies, elotuzumab which targets SLAMF-7 and daratumumab which targets CD38, have been recently approved by FDA for patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Both agents are well tolerated. Multiple clinical trials incorporating these monoclonal antibodies in MM treatment are currently ongoing. Of special interest are the anticipated results of phase III clinical trials with elotuzumab [NCT0189164; NCT01335399; NCT02495922] and daratumumab [NCT02252172; NCT02195479] in newly diagnosed MM patients. Moreover, of great interest are the awaited data on pembrolizumabin combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in refractory/relapsed MM patients [NCT02576977] and in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed MM patients. It seems that the incorporation of monoclonal antibodies will change the landscape of myeloma therapy in the near future. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Dimopoulos MA, Moreau P, Palumbo A, Chng W-J, Feng S. Carfilozomib versus bortezomib for relapsed or refractory myeloma – Authors' reply. The Lancet Oncology [Internet]. 2016;17(4):e126. Website
Drivalos A, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Kapranou A, Kollaitis G, Koutlis G, Antoniou N, Karanastasis D, Dimopoulos MA, Bamias A. Expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin in localized prostate cancer. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations [Internet]. 2016;34(4):165.e11 - 165.e18. WebsiteAbstract
Objective: To explore the correlation between the expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin in prostate cancer (PCa) and its clinicopathological data including tumor grade and clinical stage. Methods: The expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, Ε-cadherin, and N-cadherin was examined in 157 cases of PCa and adjacent normal prostatic tissue by immunohistochemical assay, and the correlation with clinicopathological features was analyzed. Results: Expressions of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin in PCa were lower than those in normal prostatic tissues (P<0.05). N-cadherin expression was higher in cancer prostatic tissue than in normal prostatic tissues (P<0.05). The reduced expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin was related to Gleason score, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and prostate-specific antigen level, but it was not associated with positive surgical margins and patient age. The increased expression of N-cadherin was related to Gleason score, pathological stage, lymph node metastasis, and prostate-specific antigen level, but not to age and positive surgical margins. The expression of E-cadherin was highly negatively correlated with that of N-cadherin and also positively correlated with that of α5-integrin and α7-integrin. Conclusion: The reduced expression of α5-integrin, α7-integrin, and Ε-cadherin and abnormal expression of N-cadherin play an important role in the occurrence and development of PCa. The results indicate that these have potential values in the diagnosis and are predictable indices in the proliferation of PCa. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Kumar S, Paiva B, Anderson KC, Durie B, Landgren O, Moreau P, Munshi N, Lonial S, Bladé J, Mateos M-V, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma. The Lancet Oncology [Internet]. 2016;17(8):e328 - e346. WebsiteAbstract
Treatment of multiple myeloma has substantially changed over the past decade with the introduction of several classes of new effective drugs that have greatly improved the rates and depth of response. Response criteria in multiple myeloma were developed to use serum and urine assessment of monoclonal proteins and bone marrow assessment (which is relatively insensitive). Given the high rates of complete response seen in patients with multiple myeloma with new treatment approaches, new response categories need to be defined that can identify responses that are deeper than those conventionally defined as complete response. Recent attempts have focused on the identification of residual tumour cells in the bone marrow using flow cytometry or gene sequencing. Furthermore, sensitive imaging techniques can be used to detect the presence of residual disease outside of the bone marrow. Combining these new methods, the International Myeloma Working Group has defined new response categories of minimal residual disease negativity, with or without imaging-based absence of extramedullary disease, to allow uniform reporting within and outside clinical trials. In this Review, we clarify several aspects of disease response assessment, along with endpoints for clinical trials, and highlight future directions for disease response assessments. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Dimopoulos MA, Palumbo A, Corradini P, Cavo M, Delforge M, Di Raimondo F, Weisel KC, Oriol A, Hansson M, Vacca A, et al. Safety and efficacy of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in STRATUS (MM-010): A phase 3b study in refractory multiple myeloma. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(4):497 - 503. WebsiteAbstract
Patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) have poor prognosis. The STRATUS study assessed safety and efficacy of pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in the largest cohort to date of patients with RRMM. Patients who failed treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide and had adequate prior alkylator therapy were eligible. Pomalidomide 4 mg was given on days 1-21 of 28-day cycles with low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg (20 mg for patients aged >75 years) on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity. Safety was the primary end point; secondary end points included overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Among 682 patients enrolled, median age was 66 years, and median time since diagnosis was 5.3 years. Median number of prior regimens was 5. Most patients were refractory to both lenalidomide and bortezomib (80.2%). Median follow-up was 16.8 months; median duration of treatment was 4.9 months. Most frequent grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hematologic (neutropenia [49.7%], anemia [33.0%], and thrombocytopenia [24.1%]). Most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were pneumonia (10.9%) and fatigue (5.9%). Grade 3/4 venous thromboembolism and peripheral neuropathy were rare (1.6% each). The ORR was 32.6%, and the median DOR was 7.4 months. Median PFS and OS were 4.6 months and 11.9 months, respectively. We present the largest trial to date evaluating pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in patients with RRMM, further confirming that this regimen offers clinically meaningful benefit and is generally well tolerated. www.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01712789. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Kastritis E, Papassotiriou I, Terpos E, Roussou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Komitopoulou A, Skevaki C, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Pamboucas C, Psimenou E, et al. Clinical and prognostic significance of serum levels of von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS-13 antigens in AL amyloidosis. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(3):405 - 409. WebsiteAbstract
Cardiac dysfunction determines prognosis in amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. The heart is the central organ of the vascular system in which endothelium function is critical for the circulatory homeostasis, but there are limited data on endothelial function in AL amyloidosis. von Willebrand factor (VWF) has been considered as a marker of endothelial activation and dysfunction, whereas a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type-1 repeats 13 (ADAMTS-13) cleaves VWF multimers, but both have been associated with prognosis in cardiovascular disease. We measured the serum levels of VWF (VWF:Ag) and ADAMTS-13 antigens in 111 newly diagnosed patients with AL amyloidosis. The levels of VWF:Ag were significantly higher than in healthy controls; 76% of patients with AL had VWF:Ag levels higher than the upper levels of controls. There was no significant association of VWF:Ag levels with patterns of organ involvement, free light-chain levels, the levels of cardiac biomarkers, or renal dysfunction but correlated with low systolic blood pressure. VWF:Ag levels ≥230.0 U/dL were associated with higher probability of early death and poor survival independently of cardiac biomarkers and low systolic blood pressure (SBP). Moreover, among patients with Mayo stage III or stage IIIB (that is stage III with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NTproBNP] >8500 pg/mL) disease, VWF:Ag identified subgroups of patients with very poor outcome. Low ADAMTS-13 levels correlated with high levels of NTproBNP but had no independent prognostic significance. In conclusion, high VWF:Ag levels, probably representing endothelial dysfunction, are associated with prognosis in patients with AL amyloidosis, independently of other features of the disease or cardiac biomarkers. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Liontos M, Trigka E-A, Korkolopoulou P, Tzannis K, Lainakis G, Koutsoukos K, Kostouros E, Lykka M, Papandreou CN, Karavasilis V, et al. Expression and prognostic significance of VEGF and mTOR pathway proteins in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients: a prognostic immunohistochemical profile for kidney cancer patients. World Journal of Urology [Internet]. 2016:1 - 9. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: To identify prognostic molecular profiles in patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib, we performed immunohistochemical analysis for VEGF and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway components. Methods: The immunohistochemical expression of VEGF, p85α, p110γ, PTEN, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1 and p-p70S6K was studied in 79 patients with mRCC who received first-line treatment with sunitinib. Expression was correlated with clinicopathological features and survival. Results: VEGF was highly expressed (median H-Score 150), while positivity for the markers of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was: p85α 43/66 (65 %), p110γ41/60 (68 %), PTEN 32/64 (50 %), p-Akt57/63 (90 %), p-mTOR48/64 (75 %), p-4E-BP1 58/64 (90 %) and p-p70S6K 60/65 (92 %). No single immunohistochemical marker was found to have prognostic significance. Instead, the combination of increased p-mTOR and low VEGF expression was adversely correlated with overall survival (OS) (3.2 vs. 16.9 months, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Immunohistochemistry for VEGF and p-mTOR proteins may discriminate patients refractory to first-line sunitinib with poor prognosis. Prospective validation of our findings is needed. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
Fotiou D, Gerotziafas G, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E. A review of the venous thrombotic issues associated with multiple myeloma. Expert Review of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;9(7):695 - 706. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications. The first reports of high VTE rates date back to 1999 but became more apparent with the introduction of novel agents in the treatment of MM and mostly with immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs; thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide). Areas covered: Currently thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients who receive IMiDs-based regimens and the type of thrombophrophylaxis is based on patient-, disease- and treatment-related risk factors. Making the distinction between the intrinsic risk of thrombosis in MM and the effect of therapy is crucial. The use of aspirin, low molecular weight heparins and warfarin are the recommended drugs but despite their appropriate use the rates of VTE are not completely eliminated. Expert commentary: Research into biomarkers of increased coagulability and their incorporation in risk assessment models could identify patients most likely to benefit from thromboprophylaxis but such models are not widely used in myeloma. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Liontos M, Anastasiou I, Bamias A, Dimopoulos M-A. DNA damage, tumor mutational load and their impact on immune responses against cancer. Annals of Translational Medicine [Internet]. 2016;4(14). WebsiteAbstract
Advances in immunotherapy have changed the therapeutic landscape in many malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have already received regulatory approval in melanomas, lung, renal and bladder carcinomas. A common feature of these neoplasms is the increased mutational load, related to a possible increase number of tumor neoantigens that are recognized by the immune system. The mechanisms that DNA damage could confer to the mutational load and the formation of neoantigens and how this could be exploited to advance our immunotherapeutic strategies is discussed in this review. © Annals of Translational Medicine.
Cohen YC, Joffe E, Benyamini N, Dimopoulos MA, Terpos E, Trestman S, Held-Kuznetsov V, Avivi I, Kastritis E. Primary failure of bortezomib in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma-understanding the magnitude, predictors, and significance. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(6):1382 - 1388. WebsiteAbstract
Botezomib-based induction is highly effective for the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). We investigated the outcomes of NDMM patients who failed to respond to bortezomib-based induction in a real-life clinical setting. In a cohort of 295 consecutive NDMM patients in 3 medical centers, 74 (25%) failed to achieve at least partial response after 4 induction cycles, and were classified as non-responsive. Compared to induction responders, they were older, more frequently anemic, had a higher incidence of del17p and ISS-3, and a worse performance status. In multivariable analysis, bortezomib-based induction failure occurred in 25% of patients and was the strongest independent factor predicting mortality with a 5-fold hazard ratio (95% CI 1.44-8.68). Three-year overall survival in responsive vs. non-responsive patients were 76% vs. 53%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Survival from time of salvage second-line treatment was significantly shorter among induction non-responders vs. responders (25 months vs. not-reached, p = 0.024). © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Current therapy guidelines for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology [Internet]. 2016;29(2):194 - 205. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is a B-cell neoplasm in which bone marrow is infiltrated by lymphoplasmacytic cells that secrete monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM). More than a decade ago, specific criteria were agreed to define diagnosis and symptomatic disease requiring therapy; however, treatment recommendations change as new options emerge. Treatment decisions consider specific disease characteristics (burden of disease, IgM levels, presence of cytopenias) and patient characteristics (age, comorbidities, toxicity). Recently, the impact of specific mutations (in MYD88 and CXCR4) in response to specific therapies has been reported, and this may affect treatment decisions in the future. Chemo-immunotherapy combinations based on rituximab with cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone, bendamustine or bortezomib/dexamethasone are indicated for most patients. The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib was recently approved for patients with WM, and is a new option for selected newly diagnosed or relapsing patients. New B-cell receptor inhibitors, second-generation proteasome inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are promising; however, more data are needed from high-quality clinical trials. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Sergentanis TN, Kastritis E, Terpos E, Dimopoulos MA, Psaltopoulou T. Cytogenetics and Survival of Multiple Myeloma: Isolated and Combined Effects. Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia [Internet]. 2016;16(6):335 - 340. WebsiteAbstract
Background A variety of clinical and laboratory prognostic factors for multiple myeloma (MM) have been addressed in published studies. The prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities is also under investigation. Patients and Methods The present study evaluated the potential prognostic role of cytogenetic events and their combinations in terms of overall survival in a large cohort of unselected patients with MM (n = 432). Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes classification, International Staging System score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum calcium, platelet count, and blood hemoglobin. Results The presence of del(13q) (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.47), t(4;14) (adjusted HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.19-3.35), and/or del(17p) (adjusted HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.22-3.37) was independently associated with poorer overall survival. The poor prognosis seemed more pronounced among patients harboring combinations of 2 adverse cytogenetic abnormalities. In contrast, t(14;16), t(11;14), and add(1q21) were not associated with overall survival. The effect of bortezomib seemed rather minimal in the modification of the prognostic role mediated by del(17p). Conclusion The presence of del(13q), t(4;14), and del(17p), singly or in combination, seems to be an independent poor prognostic factor for patients with MM. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Koutsoukos K, Tzannis K, Christodoulou C, Karavasilis V, Bakoyiannis C, Makatsoris T, Papandreou CN, Pectasides D, Dimopoulos MA, Bamias A. Two cycles of adjuvant carboplatin in stage I seminoma: 8-year experience by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HECOG). World Journal of Urology [Internet]. 2016;34(6):853 - 857. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: Following the establishment of adjuvant carboplatin in stage I testicular seminoma as a standard, we adopted this treatment for all stage I seminoma patients. We report our 8-year experience and compare these results with our previous adjuvant etoposide/cisplatin (EP) strategy. Patients and methods: Patients with stage I seminoma, treated with adjuvant carboplatin and with a minimum follow-up of 1 year, were included. Two cycles of carboplatin [area under the curve (AUC) 6] were administered. Results: A total of 138 patients with median age of 34 years, treated from September 2003 to December 2011, were selected. There were 5 relapses [5-year relapse-free rate (RFR) 96.8 % (95 % confidence interval 91.6–98.8)]: 3 relapses at retroperitoneal lymph nodes, 1 relapse at the adrenal gland, and 1 isolated brain metastasis. Four patients with relapse were cured with salvage chemotherapy. All patients with relapse had tumor diameter ≥4 cm and/or age ≤34 years. Patients with at least 1 of the above risk factors (n = 111) had a significantly higher relapse rate compared with a similar population (n = 64) treated with 2 cycles of adjuvant EP: 5-year RFR was 95 % (SE 2 %) versus 100 % (SE 0 %), (p = 0.067). Conclusions: Age and tumor diameter were associated with relapse in stage I seminoma treated with adjuvant carboplatin. Although adjuvant carboplatin in patients with age ≤34 and/or tumor diameter ≥4 cm is associated with higher relapse rates than EP, the prognosis of these patients is excellent, and therefore, the use of less toxic treatment is justified. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Fotiou D, Dimopoulos MA, Kastritis E. Managing renal complications in multiple myeloma. Expert Review of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;9(9):839 - 850. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: About 20–40% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) will present with some degree of renal impairment (RI) and about 25% of patients will experience RI at later disease stages. Patients with MM and RI have poorer overall survival and are at higher risk of early death. Areas covered: The mechanisms of acute renal damage in MM are covered and the issues around diagnosis and renal evaluation response are discussed. The importance of optimal supportive care is stressed and the role and effectiveness of different anti-myeloma agents covered including the role of high cut-off hemodialysis, autologous stem cell transplantation and kidney transplant. Expert commentary: Outcomes of patients with RI and rates of renal recovery have improved with the use of novel anti-myeloma agents. Bortezomib-dexamethasone backbone regimes (±third agent) are the current first choice in newly diagnosed patients. In relapsed/refractory disease additional treatment options include newer novel agents. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Kokotis P, Schmelz M, Kostouros E, Karandreas N, Dimopoulos M-A. Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathy: A Long-Term Clinical and Neurophysiologic Follow-Up Study. Clinical Colorectal Cancer [Internet]. 2016;15(3):e133 - e140. WebsiteAbstract
Micro-Abstract Acute oxaliplatin neurotoxicity and chronic sensory cumulative neuropathy were investigated in a long-term study of 31 consecutive patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Our results improve the knowledge of acute neurotoxicity and support the finding of the persistence of the sensory nerve deficits for years after the cessation of oxaliplatin therapy. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Gkotzamanidou M, Terpos E, Bamia C, Munshi NC, Dimopoulos MA, Souliotis VL. DNA repair of myeloma plasma cells correlates with clinical outcome: The effect of the nonhomologous end-joining inhibitor SCR7. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(9):1214 - 1225. WebsiteAbstract
DNA repair activity of malignant cells seems to influence therapeutic outcome and patients' survival. Herein, we investigated the mechanistic basis for the link between DNA repair efficiency and response to antimyeloma therapy. Nucleotide excision repair (NER), interstrand cross-links repair (ICL/R), double-strand breaks repair (DSB/R), and chromatin structure were evaluated in multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines (melphalan-sensitive RPMI8226; melphalan-resistant LR5) and bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) from MM patients who responded (n = 17) or did not respond (n = 9) to subsequent melphalan therapy. The effect of DSB/R inhibition was also evaluated. Responders' BMPCs showed slower rates of NER and DSB/R (P < .0022), similar rates of ICL/R, and more condensed chromatin structure compared with nonresponders. Moreover, apoptosis rates of BMPCs were inversely correlated with individual DNA repair efficiency and were higher in responders' cells compared with those of nonresponders (P = .0011). Similarly, RPMI8226 cells showed slower rates of NER and DSB/R, comparable rates of ICL/R, more condensed chromatin structure, and higher sensitivity than LR5 cells. Interestingly, cotreatment of BMPCs or cell lines with DSB/R inhibitors significantly reduced the rates ofDSB/R and increasedmelphalan sensitivity of the cells, with the nonhomologous end-joining inhibitor SCR7 showing the strongest effect. Together, responders' BMPCs are characterized by lower efficiencies of NER and DSB/R mechanisms, resulting in higher accumulation of the extremely cytotoxic ICLs andDSBs lesions,which in turn triggers the induction of the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, the enhancement of melphalan cytotoxicity by DSB/R inhibition offers a promising strategy toward improvement of existing antimyeloma regimens. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Yui JC, Van Keer J, Weiss BM, Waxman AJ, Palmer MB, D'Agati VD, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA, Vij R, Bansal D, et al. Proteasome inhibitor associated thrombotic microangiopathy. American Journal of Hematology [Internet]. 2016;91(9):E348 - E352. WebsiteAbstract
A variety of medications have been implicated in the causation of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Recently, a few case reports have emerged of TMA attributed to the proteasome inhibitors (PI) bortezomib and carfilzomib in patients with multiple myeloma. The aim of this case series was to better characterize the role of PI in the etiology of drug-induced TMA. We describe eleven patients from six medical centers from around the world who developed TMA while being treated with PI. The median time between medication initiation and diagnosis of TMA was 21 days (range 5 days to 17 months). Median laboratory values at diagnosis included hemoglobin—7.5 g dL−1, platelet count—20 × 109/L, LDH—698 U L−1, creatinine—3.12 mg dL−1. No patient had any other cause of TMA, including ADAMTS13 inhibition, other malignancy or use of any other medication previously associated with TMA. Nine patients had resolution of TMA without evidence of hemolysis after withdrawal of PI. Two patients had stabilization of laboratory values but persistent evidence of hemolysis despite medication withdrawal. One patient had recurrence of TMA with rechallenge of PI. There is a strong level of evidence that PI can cause DITMA. In evaluating patients with suspected TMA, PI use should be recognized as a potential etiology, and these medications should be discontinued promptly if thought to be the cause of TMA. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E348–E352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Avet-Loiseau H, Fonseca R, Siegel D, Dimopoulos MA, Špička I, Masszi T, Hájek R, Rosiñol L, Goranova-Marinova V, Mihaylov G, et al. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(9):1174 - 1180. WebsiteAbstract
The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n548; Rd, n552) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standardrisk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. Copyright © 2011 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.
Zagouri F, Roussou M, Kastritis E, Gavriatopoulou M, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Kanellias N, Kalapanida D, Christoulas D, Migkou M, Terpos E, et al. Lenalidomide with low- or intermediate-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(8):1776 - 1780. WebsiteAbstract
Abstract: To compare the outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who were treated with lenalidomide combined with high versus low dose of dexamethasone. One hundred forty consecutive relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients who received lenalidomide with dexamethasone, in two consecutive time periods, were divided into two groups: group RD (70 consecutive patients in the first period) who received lenalidomide with intermediate doses of dexamethasone and group Rd (70 consecutive patients in the more recent period) who received lenalidomide with low-dose dexamethasone. 62% and 73% of patients who received RD and Rd (p = 0.148) achieved at least a partial response, accordingly. The median OS was 20 and 41 months for the RD and the Rd group, accordingly. In the multivariate analysis, Rd was associated with improved PFS. More patients treated with RD developed grade 3&4 neutropenia and fatigue. It seems that Rd is at least as effective as RD. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Karavasilis V, Papadimitriou C, Gogas H, Kouvatseas G, Pentheroudakis G, Koutras A, Christodoulou C, Bafaloukos D, Samantas E, Pisanidis N, et al. Safety and Tolerability of Anthracycline-Containing Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Elderly High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Breast Cancer [Internet]. 2016;16(4):291 - 298.e3. WebsiteAbstract
Micro-Abstract We characterized the feasibility and toxicity profile of anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy in women >65 years of age with early breast cancer. Elderly breast cancer patients derive clinical benefit comparable with that of younger patients, mainly at the cost of increased risk of hematological toxicity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Castillo JJ, Garcia-Sanz R, Hatjiharissi E, Kyle RA, Leleu X, McMaster M, Merlini G, Minnema MC, Morra E, Owen RG, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and initial evaluation of patients with Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia: A Task Force from the 8th International Workshop on Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia. British Journal of Haematology [Internet]. 2016;175(1):77 - 86. WebsiteAbstract
The diagnosis of Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM) can be challenging given the variety of signs and symptoms patients can present. Furthermore, once the diagnosis of WM is established, the initial evaluation should be thorough as well as appropriately directed. During the 8th International Workshop for WM in London, United Kingdom, a multi-institutional task force was formed to develop consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and initial evaluation of patients with WM. In this document, we present the results of the deliberations that took place to address these issues. We provide recommendations for history-taking and physical examination, laboratory studies, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy analysis and imaging studies. We also provide guidance on the initial evaluation of special situations, such as anaemia, hyperviscosity, neuropathy, Bing-Neel syndrome and amyloidosis. We hope these recommendations serve as a practical guidance to clinicians taking care of patients with a suspected or an established diagnosis of WM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Leblond V, Kastritis E, Advani R, Ansell SM, Buske C, Castillo JJ, García-Sanz R, Gertz M, Kimby E, Kyriakou C, et al. Treatment recommendations from the Eighth International Workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia. Blood [Internet]. 2016;128(10):1321 - 1328. WebsiteAbstract
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of the International Workshop on Waldenström's Macroglobulinemia (IWWM). At IWWM-8, a task force for treatment recommendations was impanelled to review recently published and ongoing clinical trial data as well as the impact of new mutations (MYD88 and CXCR4) on treatment decisions, indications for B-cell receptor and proteasome inhibitors, and future clinical trial initiatives for WM patients. The panel concluded that therapeutic strategies in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics. Chemoimmunotherapy combinations with rituximab and cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib-dexamethasone provide durable responses and are still indicated in most patients. Approval of the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib in the United States and Europe represents a novel and effective treatment option for both treatment-naive and relapsing patients. Other B-cell receptor inhibitors, second-generation proteasome inhibitors (eg, carfilzomib), and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors are promising and may increase future treatment options. Active enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible was endorsed by the panel for most patients with WM. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.
Ziogas DC, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Carfilzomib for treating myeloma. Expert Opinion on Orphan Drugs [Internet]. 2016;4(9):989 - 999. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Carfilzomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, has been increasingly used in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) since its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration in 2012, either as a single agent or in combination with other known anti-myeloma treatments. Based on its efficacy and safety profile in the relapsed/refractory setting, carfilzomib is currently evaluated in patients with de novo MM. Areas covered: Here, we will shed some light on the introduction of carfilzomib as an effective anti-myeloma treatment, presenting its mechanism of action, its response rates and adverse events, as well as a summary of all clinical trials evaluating current dosage and schedule of administration. We will follow the entire path of drug’s development from the bench of preclinical studies to the market and bedside delivery. Revising the published evidence, we will try to answer all questions raised about the novel drug, expressing in parallel our site experience. Expert opinion: Carfilzomib, alone or in combination with other agents, is a welcome therapeutic option for MM patients with a well-defined toxicity profile. Results of ongoing trials are expected in order to update drug indications and maximize its therapeutic benefits in patients with refractory/relapse MM. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Ziogas DC, Kastritis E, Terpos E, Roussou M, Migkou M, Gavriatopoulou M, Spanomichou D, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Fotiou D, Panagiotidis I, et al. Hematologic and renal improvement of monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease after treatment with bortezomib-based regimens. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016:1 - 8. WebsiteAbstract
Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is characterized by non-organized immunoglobulin-fragments along renal basement membranes with subsequent organ deterioration. Treatment is directed against the immunoglobulin-producing clone. We treated 18 MIDD patients with bortezomib-based regimens (12 received bortezomib-dexamethasone, 6 bortezomib-dexamethasone with cyclophosphamide). Eleven (61%) patients achieved a hematologic response, but only 6 (33.3%) reached to a complete (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR). Regarding renal outcomes 77.8 and 55.6% had ≥30 and ≥50% reduction of proteinuria, respectively, but 33.3% ended up in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Among patients with CR or VGPR, median eGFR improvement was 7.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 and none progressed to ESRD, but no significant renal recovery was observed in patients achieving a partial response or less, with 50% progressing to dialysis. Pretreatment eGFR seems to influence renal prognosis. Bortezomib-based treatment is considered an effective approach in MIDD and reaching to a deep hematologic response (≥VGPR) conditionally controls further renal declining. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Moreau P, Weisel KC, Song KW, Gibson CJ, Saunders O, Sternas LA, Hong K, Zaki MH, Dimopoulos MA. Relationship of response and survival in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma treated with pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in the MM-003 trial randomized phase III trial (NIMBUS). Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(12):2839 - 2847. WebsiteAbstract
Relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) patients have poor overall survival (OS). Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone (POM + LoDEX) significantly extends OS in RRMM vs. high-dose dexamethasone. Survival of patients with stable disease (SD) was compared to patients with progressive disease (PD) or ≥ partial response (≥PR) at cycles (C) 3, 5, and 7. Among 302 patients randomized to POM + LoDEX, at C3 19.2% achieved ≥ PR, 38.4% SD, and 14.6% PD. Patients with SD at C3 (17.4%) and C5 (13.6%) showed improved responses at C7. Median OS from randomization by response at C3 was 22.4 months for ≥ PR (n = 58, HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.40–1.08, p = 0.0976 vs. SD), 16.2 months for SD (n = 116), and 6.3 months for PD (n = 44, HR 3.43; 95% CI 2.23–5.27, p < 0.0001 vs. SD). Similar patterns were observed for C5 and C7. Results show that POM + LoDEX should be a standard treatment after lenalidomide and bortezomib, including in SD patients. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Siegel DS, Weisel KC, Dimopoulos MA, Baz R, Richardson P, Delforge M, Song KW, San Miguel JF, Moreau P, Goldschmidt H, et al. Pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and moderate renal impairment: a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016;57(12):2833 - 2838. WebsiteAbstract
Renal impairment (RI) is a major comorbidity in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Here we present the pooled safety and efficacy analysis of three clinical trials (MM-002, MM-003, and MM-010) of pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone (POM + LoDEX) in patients with moderate RI (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥ 30 to <60 mL/min) and without RI (≥ 60 mL/min). Trial protocols were approved by the institutional review board of each site involved. Patients with RI were older than patients without RI, although other baseline characteristics were similar. The dosing and safety profile of POM + LoDEX was similar across RI subgroups. Median overall response rate, progression-free survival, time to progression, and duration of response were not significantly different between RI subgroups. However, patients with vs. without RI had significantly shorter median overall survival (10.5 vs. 14.0 months, respectively; p =.004). This analysis demonstrates that POM + LoDEX is a safe and effective treatment for patients with moderate RI. The trials were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00833833 (MM-002), NCT01311687 (MM-003), and NCT01712789 (MM-010) and at EudraCT as 2010-019820-30 (MM-003) and 2012-001888-78 (MM-010). © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Stewart AK, Dimopoulos MA, Masszi T, Špička I, Oriol A, Hájek R, Rosiñol L, Siegel DS, Niesvizky R, Jakubowiak AJ, et al. Health-related quality-of-life results from the open-label, randomized, phase III ASPIRE trial evaluating carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patientswith relapsed multiple myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(32):3921 - 3930. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose To determine the effects of carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) versus lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in the Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone Versus Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone for the Treatment of Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma (ASPIRE) trial. Methods Patients with relapsed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned to receive KRd or Rd. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and myeloma-specific module were administered at baseline; day 1 of cycles 3, 6, 12, and 18; and after treatment. The Global Health Status/Quality of Life (GHS/QoL) scale and seven subscales (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, physical functioning, role functioning, disease symptoms, and adverse effects of treatment) were compared between groups using a mixed model for repeated measures. The percentages of responders with ≥ 5- or 15-point GHS/QoL improvement at each cycle were compared between groups. Results Baseline questionnaire compliance was excellent (94.1% of randomly assigned patients). KRd patients had higher GHS/QoL scores versus Rd patients over 18 treatment cycles (two-sided P<.001). The minimal important difference was met at cycle 12 (5.6 points) and approached at cycle 18 (4.8 points). There was no difference between groups for the other prespecified subscales from ASPIRE. A higher proportion of KRd patients met the GHS/QoL responder definition (≥ 5-point improvement) with statistical differences at cycle 12 (KRd v Rd patients, 25.5% v 17.4%, respectively) and 18 (KRd v Rd patients, 24.2% v 12.9%, respectively). Conclusion KRd improves GHS/QoL without negatively affecting patient-reported symptoms when compared with Rd. These data further support the benefit of KRd in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Gavriatopoulou M, Terpos E, Kastritis E, Dimopoulos MA. Current treatments for renal failure due to multiple myeloma. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy [Internet]. 2016;17(16):2165 - 2177. WebsiteAbstract
Introduction: Renal impairment (RI) is one of the most common complication of multiple myeloma (MM). RI is present in almost 20% of MM patients at diagnosis and in 40%-50% of patients during the course of their disease. Areas covered: Biology along with tools for diagnosis and management of RI are reported in this paper. Papers published in PubMed and reported abstracts up to May 2016 were used. Expert opinion: Moderate and severe RI increases the risk of early death; thus rapid intervention and initiation of anti-myeloma treatment is essential and improves renal outcomes in RI patients. Bortezomib and dexamethasone triplet combinations are the current standard of therapy for MM patients with acute kidney injury due to cast nephropathy; they offer high rates of both anti-myeloma response and renal recovery. Thalidomide and lenalidomide may be used in bortezomib refractory patients. In the relapsed/refractory setting additional treatment options such as carfilzomib, pomalidomide and monoclonal antibodies are available; however, there is limited data for their effects on patients with RI. High dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered in otherwise eligible patients with RI. Finally, high cut-off hemodialysis membranes do not seem to offer significant additive effects on anti-myeloma therapies. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
San-Miguel JF, Hungria VTM, Yoon S-S, Beksac M, Dimopoulos MA, Elghandour A, Jedrzejczak WW, Günther A, Nakorn TN, Siritanaratkul N, et al. Overall survival of patients with relapsed multiple myeloma treated with panobinostat or placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone (the PANORAMA 1 trial): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. The Lancet Haematology [Internet]. 2016;3(11):e506 - e515. WebsiteAbstract
Background Panobinostat plus bortezomib and dexamethasone significantly increased median progression-free survival compared with placebo plus bortezomib and dexamethasone in the phase 3 PANORAMA 1 trial. Here, we present the final overall survival analysis for this trial. Methods PANORAMA 1 is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 3 trial of patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma with one to three previous treatments. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive panobinostat (20 mg orally) or placebo, with bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg orally), over two distinct treatment phases. In treatment phase 1 (eight 3-week cycles), patients received: panobinostat or placebo on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12; bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11; and dexamethasone on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12. During treatment phase 2 (four 6-week cycles with a 2 weeks on, 1 week off schedule), panobinostat or placebo was given three times a week, bortezomib was administered once a week, and dexamethasone was given on the days of and following bortezomib administration. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; overall survival was a key secondary endpoint. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01023308. Findings Between Jan 21, 2010, and Feb 29, 2012, 768 patients were enrolled into the study and randomly assigned to receive either panobinostat (n=387) or placebo (n=381), plus bortezomib and dexamethasone. At data cutoff (June 29, 2015), 415 patients had died. Median overall survival was 40·3 months (95% CI 35·0–44·8) in those who received panobinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus 35·8 months (29·0–40·6) in those who received placebo, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (hazard ratio [HR] 0·94, 95% CI 0·78–1·14; p=0·54). Of patients who had received at least two previous regimens including bortezomib and an immunomodulatory drug, median overall survival was 25·5 months (95% CI 19·6–34·3) in 73 patients who received panobinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus 19·5 months (14·1–32·5) in 74 who received placebo (HR 1·01, 95% CI 0·68–1·50). Interpretation The overall survival benefit with panobinostat over placebo with bortezomib and dexamethasone was modest. However, optimisation of the regimen could potentially prolong treatment duration and improve patients' outcomes, although further trials will be required to confirm this. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Hulin C, Belch A, Shustik C, Petrucci MT, Dührsen U, Lu J, Song K, Rodon P, Pégourié B, Garderet L, et al. Updated outcomes and impact of age with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in the randomized, phase III FIRST trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology [Internet]. 2016;34(30):3609 - 3617. WebsiteAbstract
Purpose: This analysis of the FIRST trial in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) ineligible for stem-cell transplantation examined updated outcomes and impact of patient age. Patients and Methods: Patients with untreated symptomatic MM were randomly assigned at a one-to-one-to-one ratio to lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks), stratified by age (≤ 75 v > 75 years), disease stage (International Staging System stage I/II v III), and country. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Rd continuous and MPT were primary comparators. Results: Between August 21, 2008, and March 7, 2011, 1,623 patients were enrolled (Rd continuous, n = 535; Rd18, n = 541; MPT, n = 547), including 567 (35%) age older than 75 years. Higher rates of advanced-stage disease and renal impairment were observed in patients older than 75 versus 75 years of age or younger. Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death compared with MPT by 31% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.80; P <.001) overall, 36% (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.77; P <.001) in patients age 75 years or younger, and 20% (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.03; P =.084) in those age older than 75 years. Median overall survival was longer with Rd continuous than with MPT, including a 14-month difference in patients age older than 75 years. Progression-free survival with Rd18 was similar to that with MPT, and overall survival with Rd18 was marginally inferior to that with Rd continuous. Rates of grade 3 to 4 treatment-emergent adverse events were similar for Rd continuous-treated patients age 75 years or older and those age older than 75 years; however, older patients had more frequent lenalidomide dose reductions. Conclusion: Results support Rd continuous treatment as a new standard of care for stem-cell transplantation-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed MM of all ages. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Gavriatopoulou M, Kastritis E, Kyrtsonis M-C, Vassilakopoulos TP, Roussou M, Fotiou D, Migkou M, Mpakiri M, Tasidou A, Terpos E, et al. Phase 2 study of ofatumumab, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in relapsed/refractory Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. Leukemia and Lymphoma [Internet]. 2016:1 - 3. Website
Terpos E, Christoulas D, Kastritis E, Bagratuni T, Gavriatopoulou M, Roussou M, Papatheodorou A, Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou E, Kanellias N, Liakou C, et al. High levels of periostin correlate with increased fracture rate, diffuse MRI pattern, abnormal bone remodeling and advanced disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma. Blood Cancer Journal [Internet]. 2016;6(10):e482. WebsiteAbstract
Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein that is implicated in the biology of normal bone remodeling and in different cancer cell growth and metastasis. However, there is no information on the role of periostin in multiple myeloma (MM). Thus, we evaluated periostin in six myeloma cell lines in vitro; in the bone marrow plasma and serum of 105 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients and in the serum of 23 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 33 smoldering MM (SMM) patients, 30 patients at the plateau phase post-first-line therapy, 30 patients at first relapse and 30 healthy controls. We found high levels of periostin in the supernatants of myeloma cell lines compared with ovarian cancer cell lines that were not influenced by the incubation with the stromal cell line HS5. In NDMM patients the bone marrow plasma periostin was almost fourfold higher compared with the serum levels of periostin and correlated with the presence of fractures and of diffuse magnetic resonance imaging pattern of marrow infiltration. Serum periostin was elevated in NDMM patients compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients and correlated with advanced disease stage, high lactate dehydrogenase, increased activin-A, increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Patients at first relapse had also elevated periostin compared with healthy controls, MGUS and SMM patients, while even patients at the plateau phase had elevated serum periostin compared with healthy controls. These results support an important role of periostin in the biology of myeloma and reveal periostin as a possible target for the development of antimyeloma drugs. © 2016 The Author(s).
Dimopoulos MA, Oriol A, Nahi H, San-Miguel J, Bahlis NJ, Usmani SZ, Rabin N, Orlowski RZ, Komarnicki M, Suzuki K, et al. Daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone for multiple myeloma. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2016;375(14):1319 - 1331. WebsiteAbstract
BACKGROUND: Daratumumab showed promising efficacy alone and with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in a phase 1-2 study involving patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 569 patients with multiple myeloma who had received one or more previous lines of therapy to receive lenalidomide and dexamethasone either alone (control group) or in combination with daratumumab (daratumumab group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 13.5 months in a protocol-specified interim analysis, 169 events of disease progression or death were observed (in 53 of 286 patients [18.5%] in the daratumumab group vs. 116 of 283 [41.0%] in the control group; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.52; P<0.001 by stratified log-rank test). The Kaplan- Meier rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 83.2% (95% CI, 78.3 to 87.2) in the daratumumab group, as compared with 60.1% (95% CI, 54.0 to 65.7) in the control group. A significantly higher rate of overall response was observed in the daratumumab group than in the control group (92.9% vs. 76.4%, P<0.001), as was a higher rate of complete response or better (43.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.001). In the daratumumab group, 22.4% of the patients had results below the threshold for minimal residual disease (1 tumor cell per 105 white cells), as compared with 4.6% of those in the control group (P<0.001); results below the threshold for minimal residual disease were associated with improved outcomes. The most common adverse events of grade 3 or 4 during treatment were neutropenia (in 51.9% of the patients in the daratumumab group vs. 37.0% of those in the control group), thrombocytopenia (in 12.7% vs. 13.5%), and anemia (in 12.4% vs. 19.6%). Daratumumab-associated infusion-related reactions occurred in 47.7% of the patients and were mostly of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of daratumumab to lenalidomide and dexamethasone significantly lengthened progression-free survival among patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Daratumumab was associated with infusion-related reactions and a higher rate of neutropenia than the control therapy. Copyright © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.
Dimopoulos MA, Sonneveld P, Sun H. The author and colleagues reply: Bueno. New England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2016;375(25):2497 - 2498. Website