The effect of the non ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants


Stefi AL, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. The effect of the non ionizing radiation on exposed, laboratory cultivated upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants. Flora: Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants [Internet]. 2017;226:55 - 64.


A series of experiments was carried out to investigate possible structural or biochemical alterations in Gossypium hirsutum plants after a long term (21 days) exposure to non ionizing radiation (1882 MHz) emitted from the base unit of a cordless DECT system. Exposed plants, compared to the negative (matched) controls, seem to be seriously affected. Notably lower biomass production for the above ground part and the root was recorded. Reduction of the photosynthetic pigments and severe damage of the chloroplast structure were also observed. It seems that non ionizing radiation can be noxious for plant life functions. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH


Export Date: 7 February 2017CODEN: FLRABCorrespondence Address: Christodoulakis, N.S.; Section of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Ilisia, Greece; email: nchristo@biol.uoa.grReferences: Akbal, A., Kiran, Y., Sahin, A., Turgut-Balik, D., Balik, H., Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phones on germination, root growth and root tip cell mitotic division of Lens culinaris (2012) Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 21, pp. 23-29;Alothman, M., Bhat, R., Karim, A.A., Effects of radiation on phytochemicals and antioxidants in plant produce (2009) Trends Food Sci. Technol., 20, pp. 201-212; Bhatt, J.G., Andal, R., Variations in foliar anatomy of cotton (1979) Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 88 B, pp. 451-453. , part II; Bondada, B.R., Oosterhuis, D.M., Wullschleger, S.D., Kim, K.S., Harris, W.M., Anatomical considerations related to photosynthesis in cotton (Cossypium hirsutum L.) leaves bracts, and the capsule wall (1994) J. Exp. Bot., 45, pp. 111-118; Celik, O., Hascalik, S., Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on fetal heart rate patterns (2004) Reprod. Biol., 112, pp. 55-56; Christodoulakis, N.S., Fasseas, C., Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of Laurus nobilis, an injury resistant species (1990) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 44, pp. 276-281; Christodoulakis, N.S., Psaras, G.K., A contribution to the root study of the evergreen sclerophylls: anatomy of the primary root of Quercus coccifera l (1988) Flora, 180, pp. 445-453; Christodoulakis, N.S., Lampri, P.-N., Fasseas, C., Structural and Cytochemical Investigation on the leaf of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum eleagnifolium), a drought resistant alien weed of the Greek flora (2009) Aust. J. Bot., 57, pp. 432-438; Christodoulakis, N.S., Kogia, D., Mavroeidi, D., Fasseas, C., Anatomical and cytochemical investigation on the leaf of Teucrium polium L., a pharmaceutical shrub of the Greek phryganic formations (2010) J. Biol. Res., 14, pp. 199-209; Christodoulakis, N.S., An anatomical study of seasonal dimorphism in the leaves of Phlomis fruticosa (1989) Ann. Bot., 63, pp. 389-394; Christodoulakis, N.S., Structural diversity and adaptations in some mediterranean evergreen sclerophyllous species (1992) Environ. Exp. Bot., 32, pp. 295-305; Dobrikova, A.G., Krasteva, V., Apostolova, E.L., Damage and protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from UV-B radiation. I. Effect of ascorbate (2013) J. Plant Physiol., 15 (170), pp. 251-257; Esnault, M.-A., Legue, F., Chenal, C., Ionizing radiation: advances in plant response (2010) Environ. Exp. Bot., 68, pp. 231-237; Fahn, A., Cutler, D.F., XEROPHYTES: ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PLANT ANATOMY Gebrüder Borntr D-1000 Berlin Pages: 44-100 (1992)Fragopoulou, A.F., Miltiadous, P., Stamatakis, A., Stylianopoulou, F., Koussoulakos, S.L., Margaritis, L.H., Whole body exposure with GSM 900 MHz affects spatial memory in mice (2010) Pathophysiology, 17, pp. 179-187; Gechev, T., A simple and powerful approach for isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with increased tolerance to H2O2 (2013) Induced Cell Death Methods in Enzymology, 527, pp. 00011-00018. , Elsevier Inc. ISSN 0076-6879; Georgakilas, A.G., Bennett, P.V., Wilson, D.M., III, Sutherland, B.M., Processing of bistranded abasic DNA clusters in gamma-irradiated human hematopoietic cells (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, pp. 5609-5620; Gulston, M., Fulford, J., Jenner, T., de Lara, C., O'Neill, P., Clustered DNA damage induced by (radiation in human fibroblasts (HF 19), hamster (V79-4) cells and plasmid DNA is revealed as Fpg and Nth sensitive sites (2002) Nucleic Acids Res., 30, pp. 3464-3472; Gustavino, B., Giovanni, C., Roberto, P., Paoluzzi, G., Santovetti, E., Rizzoni, M., Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips (2015) Mutagenesis, pp. 1-6; Haggerty, K., Adverse influence of radio frequency background on trembling aspen seedlings: preliminary observations (2010) Int. J. For. Res., p. 7. , Article ID 836278; Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Mobile phones: cordless phones and the risk for brain tumors (2009) Int. J. Oncol., 35, pp. 5-17; ICNIRP, Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz) (1998) Health Phys., 74, pp. 494-522; Jacobs, G.P., A review on the effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components (1998) Radiat. Phys. Chem., 53, pp. 511-523; Kakani, V.G., Reddy, K.R., Zhao, D., Mohammed, A.R., Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology and anatomy (2003) Ann. Bot., 91, pp. 817-826; Kjær, A., Grevsen, K., Jensen, M., Effect of external stress on density and size of glandular trichomes in full-grown Artemisia annua, the source of anti-malarial artemisinin (2012) AoB PLANTS, p. pls018; Kovács, E., Keresztes, A., Effect of gamma and UV-B/C radiation on plant cells (2002) Micron, 33, pp. 199-210; Krzyzanowski, F.C., Delouche, J.C., Germination of cotton seed in relation to temperature −Germinação da semente de algodão em relação à temperature (2011) Rev. Bras. Semen, 33, pp. 543-548; Kumar, A., Pal Singh, H., Batish, D.R., Kaur1, S., Kumar-Kohli, R., EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism (2015) Protoplasma; Ledoigt, G., Electromagnetic fields (900 MHz) evoke consistent molecular responses in tomato plants (2006) Physiol. Plant., 128, pp. 283-288; Lianopoulou, V., Patakas, A., Bosabalidis, A.M., Seasonal dimorphism and winter chilling stress in Thymus sibthorpii (2015) Biol. Plant., 58, pp. 139-146; Lu, Z., Chen, J., Percy, R.G., Zeiger, E., Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and leaf area in two cotton species (Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum) and their relation to heat resistance and yield (1997) Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 24, pp. 693-700; Manta, A.K., Stravopodis, D.J., Papassideri, I.S., Margaritis, L.H., Reactive oxygen species elevation and recovery in Drosophila bodies and ovaries following short-term and long-term exposure to DECT base EMF (2014) Electromagn. Biol. Med., 33, pp. 118-131; Margaritis, L., Manta, A.K., Kokkaliaris, K.D., Schiza, D., Alimisis, K., Barkas, G., Georgiou, E., Ziomas, K., Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources (2014) Electromagn. Biol. Med., pp. 165-189; McCarty, R.E., ATP synthase of chloroplast thylakoid membranes: a more in depth characterization of its ATPase activity (2005) J. Bioenerg. Biomembr., 37, pp. 289-297; Pietruszewski, S., Muszyñski, S., Dziwulska, A., Electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation as non-invasive external stimulants for seeds (selected methods and responses) (2007) Int. Agrophys., 21, pp. 95-100; Prasad, K.N., Cole, W.C., Hasse, G.M., Health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans: a review (2004) Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood), 229, pp. 378-382; Psaras, G.K., Christodoulakis, N.S., Air Pollution Effects on the Ultrastructure of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll cells (1987) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 38, pp. 610-617; Pushnik, J.C., Miller, G.W., Von Jolley, D., Brown, J.C., Davis, T.D., Barnes, A.M., Influences of ultra-violet (UV) blue light radiation on the growth of cotton II. Photosynthesis, leaf anatomy, and iron reduction (1987) J. Plant Nutr., 1017, pp. 2283-2297; Reynolds, E., The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy (1963) J. Cell Biol., 17, pp. 19-58; Roux, D., Vian, A., Girard, S., Bonnet, P., Paladian, F., Davies, E., Electromagnetic fields (900 MHz) evoke consistent molecular responses in tomato plants (2006) Physiol. Plant., 128, pp. 283-288; Sax, K., The mechanism of X-ray effects on cells (1942) J. Gen. Physiol., 25, pp. 533-537; Shao, R.X., Xin, L.F., Zheng, H.F., Li, L.L., Ran, W.L., Mao, J., Yang, Q.H., /Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of drought-stressed maize inbred lines (2016) Photosynthetica, 54, pp. 74-80; Sharma, S., Parihar, L., Effect of mobile phone radiation on nodule formation in the leguminous plants (2014) Curr. World Environ., 9, pp. 145-155; Sharma, V.P., Singh, H.P., Kohli, R.K., Batish, D.R., Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress (2009) Sci. Total Environ., 407, pp. 5543-5547; Sheridan, S., Kalkstein, L., Kalkstein, A., Greene, S., Heat-related mortality and heat watch-warning systems in the United States: recent developments (2010) Epidemiology, , (Abstracts from the ISEE 22nd Annual Conference, Seoul, Korea, 28 August −1 September 2010, Climate change and environmental health, O-29A1-1); Spetea, C., Schoefs, B., Solute transporters in plant thylakoid membranes. Key players during photosynthesis and light stress (2010) Commun. Integr. Biol., 3, pp. 122-129; Stefi, A.L., Margaritis, H.L., Christodoulakis, N.S., The effect of the non-ionizing radiation on cultivated plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) (2016) FLORA, 223, pp. 114-120; Taiz, L., Zeiger, E., Plant Physiology: International Edition (2010), 5th edition Sinauer Associates ISBN 10: 0878935657; ISBN 13: 9780878935659Wellburn, A.R., Majernick, O., Wellburn, F.M., Effects of SO2 and NO2 polluted air upon the ultrastructure of chloroplasts (1972) Environ. Pollut., 3, pp. 37-49; Wise, R.R., Sassenrathh-Cole, G.F., Percy, R.G., A comparison of leaf anatomy in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum and G barbadense (2000) Ann. Bot., 86, pp. 731-738; Wullschleger, S.D., Oosterhuis, D.M., Photosynthetic and respiratory activity of fruiting forms within the cotton canopy (1990) Plant Physiol., 94, pp. 463-469; Yang, T., Samin, A., Cao, L., A review of low-level ionizing radiation and risk models of leukemia (2013) J. Radiat. Oncol., 2, p. 263; Zang, S., Cothren, J.T., Lorenz, E.J., Mepiquat chloride seed treatment and germination temperature effects on cotton growth, nutrient partitioning, and water use efficiency (1990) J. Plant Growth Regul., 9, pp. 195-199; Zhang, D.-W., Yuan, S., Xu, F., Zhu, F., Yuan, M., Ye, H.-X., Guo, H.-Q., Lin, H.-H., Light intensity affects chlorophyll synthesis during greening process by metabolite signal from mitochondrial alternative oxidase in Arabidopsis (2016) Plant Cell Environ., 39, pp. 12-25; Zhao, D., Oosterhuis, D.M., Bednarz, C.W., Influence of potassium deficiency on photosynthesis: chlorophyll content and chloroplast ultrastructure of cotton plants (2001) Photosynthetica, 39, pp. 103-109; Zouzoulas, D., Koutroubas, S.D., Vassiliou, G., Vardavakis, E., Effects of ozone fumigation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology anatomy, physiology, yield and qualitative characteristics of fibers (2009) Environ. Exp. Bot., 67, pp. 293-303