In this paper I investigate the relation between agreement checking and case licensing. I consider two constructions from Greek: (a) obligatory case agreement between the nominal predicate and the DP of which it is predicated in small clause structures, (b) nominative case assignment to subjects. Both constructions share the property of involving multiple case-assignment with two nominal elements that agree in case. I draw a distinction between case assignment and case agreement and show that case licensing is possible even in agreement pairs that do not involve a case assigning head. Therefore, I propose that case is not the by-product of agreement checking, but a feature subject to checking theory in the same way other phi-features are.