The paper-based analytical devices (ePADs) are patterned by wax-printing on paper and feature a circular assay zone connected to an inlet zone and a sink via grooved microfluidic channels for accelerated flow rate. An electrochemical cell with integrated electrodes is formed on the reverse side of the paper by sputtering of thin metal films (e.g. Sn, Pt and Ag as the working, counter and reference electrode, respectively). The ePADs are suitable for biosensing of DNA and proteins via quantum dot-based labeling and for the determination of heavy metals, in a pump-free mode, by anodic stripping voltammetry.
2) “Paper-based microfluidic device with integrated sputtered electrodes for stripping voltammetric determination of DNA via quantum dot labeling” Analytical Chemistry, 2018, 90, 1092-1097
1) “Paper-based device with a sputtered tin-film electrode for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Zn(II)” , Sensors and Actuators B, 2018, 260, 223-226.