In human and experimental heart failure, the activity of the type 1 phosphatase is significantly increased, associated with dephosphorylation of phospholamban, inhibition of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport ATPase (SERCA2a) and depressed function. In the current study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms controlling protein phosphatase-1 activity. Using recombinant proteins and complementary in vitro binding studies, we identified a multi-protein complex centered on protein phosphatase-1 that includes its muscle specific glycogen-targeting subunit GM and substrate phospholamban. GM interacts directly with phospholamban and this association is mediated by the cytosolic regions of the proteins. Our findings suggest the involvement of GM in mediating formation of the phosphatase-1/GM/phospholamban complex through the direct and independent interactions of GM with both protein phosphatase-1 and phospholamban. Importantly, the protein phosphatase-1/GM/phospholamban complex dissociates upon protein kinase A phosphorylation, indicating its significance in the beta-adrenergic signalling axis. Moreover, protein phosphatase-1 activity is regulated by two binding partners, inhibitor-1 and the small heat shock protein 20, Hsp20. Indeed, human genetic variants of inhibitor-1 (G147D) or Hsp20 (P20L) result in reduced binding and inhibition of protein phosphatase-1, suggesting aberrant enzymatic regulation in human carriers. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying fine-tuned regulation of protein phosphatase-1 and its impact on the SERCA2/phospholamban interactome in cardiac function.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation that is often deregulated in cancer. Inhibitors of mTOR, including rapamycin and its analogues, are being evaluated as antitumor agents. For their promise to be fulfilled, it is of paramount importance to identify the mechanisms of resistance and develop novel therapies to overcome it. Given the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that miRNAs could play important roles in the response of tumors to mTOR inhibitors. Long-term rapamycin treatment showed extensive reprogramming of miRNA expression, characterized by up-regulation of miR-17-92 and related clusters and down-regulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs. Inhibition of members of the miR-17-92 clusters or delivery of tumor suppressor miRNAs restored sensitivity to rapamycin. This study identifies miRNAs as new downstream components of the mTOR-signaling pathway, which may determine the response of tumors to mTOR inhibitors. It also identifies potential markers to assess the efficacy of treatment and provides novel therapeutic targets to treat rapamycin-resistant tumors.
INTRODUCTION: Geriatric depression is a heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic background. Current first-line treatment of depression is associated with a lower therapeutic outcome in aged depressed patients, when compared to younger subjects. Research which has explored this inadequate response has highlighted several factors which have come into play with the pharmacogenetics of antidepressants in the elderly being a particular area of interest. AREAS COVERED: The authors perform a critical review of the English language articles from PubMed using search terms such as late-life/geriatric depression, antidepressants, pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacokinetic, genetic, genotype, remission, therapy, treatment and polymorphism. EXPERT OPINION: The emerging clinical and pharmacogenetic data are slowly unveiling the importance of the genome - age interaction in antidepressant response. This data introduces a critical new parameter in personalized medicine. A profound analysis of the age factor in the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response is imperative, in order to elucidate the clinical significance of these findings and thereby improve patient treatment in the elderly.