Background in Ancient Greek Music Theory and Philosophy. The foundation of musicology as agenuine discipline with a clear-cut subject matter and a well-defined terminology can be traced backto the writings of Aristoxenus of Taras, a pupil of Aristotle. However, its epistemological roots in harmonicsand origin in Pythagorean philosophy reach back until the 6th century. Ad interim the developmentof a melodic notation system acted as a crucial factor to grow musicology into a ̔science’ oflogical reasoning. Interestingly, and still without satisfactory explanation, notation as an adequatemedium of music was brusquely rejected by Aristoxenus.Background in Music Technology and Signal Processing. Besides the thought-provoking fact thatsignal processing as the foundation of modern music technology itself originates from the domain ofharmonic analysis and, similarly, became relevant to ̔musicology proper’ only by extension with adiscrete agency purely logic in nature—i.e. the computer—now, real-time pitch-tracking andpitch-shifting can be used to augment ancient instruments electronically in order to pose archaeologicalquestions and challenge sedimented hermeneutical interpretations.Aims. While re-enacting historical configurations, applied media theory provides an unconventionalframework to interlink both backgrounds anachronistically. In practice, the aim of the present interdisciplinaryapproach is to take issue with common exegeses of the rise of ancient Greek music theory,deliver testable hypotheses to corroborate a modified picture and finally to overcome the outdatedantithesis of Pythagorean vs. Aristoxenian views on music—i.e. numerology vs. phenomenology—propounded since the Hellenistic Period and still prevalent today.Main contribution. The historical background and epistemological circumstances that led to theformation of musicology as a separate field of knowledge are reviewed. During the course of discussiona "pre-Aristoxenian codec of notation" is uncovered and linked with scattered references to thebarbiton-lyre. The acoustical significance of its origin becomes ̔instrumental’ to augment a self-madereconstruction of such an instrument electronically. Hereby a perceptual model of melody isre-enacted that logically connects and unifies theoretical camps previously considered irreconcilable.The technology and methodology necessary to achieve this is described.Implications. Towards the end of the 5th century, many sources ascribe a revolutionary ̔new music’to the advent of frequent modulations and different ̔styles’ of playing techniques. Taking this revolutionseriously, the present paper constructs a history of hearing that proposes a rupture in the ancientGreek sonosphere. Accordingly, the changed strategy of listening is regarded the true cause of theAristoxenian separation of musicology. Today, the ̔kernel’ of this parting can be identified with themore general domain of "time-critical processes" in computation and signal processing whose applicationenables us to understand the subsequent reshaping of music theory and the radical remodellingof its philosophical conception. By extension, this lesson in mousikḗ may make us rethink music asstill a vital epistemological field and may encourage us to form a new research domain possibly calledcomputational archaeomusicology.