The computational study of x-pinch plasmas driven by pulsed power generators demands the development of advanced numerical models and simulation schemes, able to enlighten the experiments. The capabilities of PLUTO code are here extended to enable the investigation of low current produced x-pinch plasmas. The numerical modules of the code used and modified are presented and discussed. The simulations results are compared to experiments, carried out on a table-top pulsed power plasma generator implemented in a mode of producing a peak current of ∼45 kA with a rise time (10%-90%) of 50 ns, loaded with Tungsten wires. The structural evolution of plasma density is studied and its influence on the magnetic field is analyzed with the help of the new simulation data. The simulated areal mass density is compared with the experimentally measured dense opaque region to enlighten the dense plasma evolution. In addition, the measured areal electron density is compared to the simulation results. Moreover, the new simulation data offer valuable insights to the main jet formation mechanisms, which are further analyzed and discussed in relation to the influence of the J× B force and the momentum.
Cepheids are pulsating variable stars with a periodic chromospheric response at UV wavelengths close to their minimum radius phase. Recently, an X-ray variable signature was captured in observations during the maximum radius phase. This X-ray emission came as a surprise and is not understood. In this work, we use the modern astrophysical code PLUTO to investigate the effects of pulsations on Cepheid X-ray emission. We run a number of hydrodynamic numerical simulations with a variety of initial and boundary conditions in order to explore the capability of shocks to produce the observed phase-dependent X-ray behavior. Finally, we use the Simulated Observations of X-ray Sources (SOXS) package to create synthetic spectra for each simulation case and link our simulations to observables. We show that, for certain conditions, we can reproduce observed X-ray fluxes at phases 0.4-0.8 when the Cepheid is at maximum radius. Our results span a wide range of mass-loss rates, 2 × 10-13 M☉ yr-1 to 3 × 10-8 M☉ yr-1, and peak X-ray luminosities, 5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.4 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We conclude that Cepheids exhibit two-component emission with (a) shock waves being responsible for the phase-dependent variable emission (phases 0.2-0.6) and (b) a separate quiescent mechanism being the dominant emission mechanism for the remaining phases.
Department of Physics National and Kapodistrian University of Athens University Campus GR-157 84 Zografou, Athens