Publications by Year: 2013

2013
Liu G, Han C, Pelaez M, Zhu D, Liao S, Likodimos V, Kontos AG, Falaras P, Dionysiou DD. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of CN-codoped TiO 2 films for the degradation of microcystin-LR. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical [Internet]. 2013;372:58-65. WebsiteAbstract
A sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique with a nonionic surfactant was employed to synthesize visible-light-active CNTiO2 films with rough surface for drinking water treatment. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CNTiO2 films on the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was subsequently evaluated under visible light irradiation. The films were characterized by XRD, ESEM, AFM, HRTEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), FT-IR, XPS, and porosimetry analysis. The results revealed that the physicochemical properties of the films, such as BET surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution, could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Higher surface area, smaller crystallite size, narrow pore size distribution, and very high surface roughness (360 nm) were obtained for CN-codoped TiO2 films calcined at 400 °C. DRS showed that as-prepared CNTiO2 films exhibited higher absorption in the visible light region and a red shift in the band gap transition due to CN-doping. CNTiO2 films effectively degraded MC-LR under visible light irradiation compared to the reference film. In particular, the film calcined at 400 °C showed high mechanical stability during three consecutive cycles for MC-LR degradation. The enhancement on the photocatalytic activity of the CNTiO2 films under visible light irradiation was attributed to the synergistic effects of carbon and nitrogen doping as well as the high surface roughness of the prepared films. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Labropoulos AI, Romanos GE, Kouvelos E, Falaras P, Likodimos V, Francisco M, Kroon MC, Iliev B, Adamova G, Schubert TJS. Alkyl-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids under extreme confinement onto nanoporous ceramic membranes. Journal of Physical Chemistry C [Internet]. 2013;117:10114-10127. WebsiteAbstract
A method to predict the gas permeability of supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) was established, using as input the pore structure characteristics of asymmetric ceramic membrane supports and the physicochemical properties of the bulk ionic liquid (IL) phase. The method was applied to investigate the effect of IL nanoconfinement on the CO2 and N 2 permeability/selectivity properties of novel SILMs developed on nanofiltration (NF) membranes employing for the first time the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium and the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ILs as pore modifiers. The selected ILs exhibit low viscosity, which allows for faster gas solvation rates and ease of synthesis/purification that makes them attractive for large-scale production. In parallel, the use of ceramic supports instead of polymeric ones presents the advantage of operation at elevated temperatures and pressures and offers the possibility to study the "real" permeability of the confined IL phase, avoiding additional contributions from the gas diffusion through the surrounding solid matrix. The developed SILMs exhibited enhanced CO2 permeability together with high CO2/N2 separation capacity, though with distinct variations depending on the alkyl chain length of the 1-alkyl-3- methylimidazolium cation. Application of the developed methodology allowed discriminating the contribution of the NF pore structural characteristics on the SILM performance and unveiled the subtle interplay of diverse IL confinement effects on the gas permeability stemming from the specific layering of ion pairs on the nanoporous surface and the phase transition of the IL at room temperature, dictated by small variations of the IL cation size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Kontos AG, Stergiopoulos T, Likodimos V, Milliken D, Desilvesto H, Tulloch G, Falaras P. Long-term thermal stability of liquid dye solar cells. Journal of Physical Chemistry C [Internet]. 2013;117:8636-8646. WebsiteAbstract
Laboratory-size dye solar cells (DSCs), based on industrially feasible materials and processes employing liquid electrolytes, have been developed. Cells based on two electrolyte solvents with different physical properties were subjected to thermal stress test at 80 C for 2000 h in the dark to monitor their long-term thermal stability. The DSCs incorporating a methoxypropionitrile (MPN)-based electrolyte presented a severe efficiency loss at 1 sun AM 1.5G of more than 70% upon thermal aging, while the solar cells using tetraglyme (TG) as a high boiling point solvent attained a promising stability with only 20% loss of performance. To better understand the above behavior, systematic experiments, including optical microscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, UV-vis absorption, electrochemical impedance, and Raman spectroscopies were conducted. Virtually no dye degradation/desorption, electrolyte decomposition, semiconductor passivation, or loss of cathode activity could be identified. For the MPN-based cells, a sharp decrease in the short-circuit photocurrent was observed at high illumination intensities following thermal stress, attributed to charge-transfer limitations due to severe triiodide loss, verified by different experimental techniques. These degradation effects were efficiently mitigated by replacing MPN with the high-boiling-point solvent in the electrolyte. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Han C, Doepke A, Cho W, Likodimos V, de la Cruz AA, Back T, Heineman WR, Halsall HB, Shanov VN, Schulz MJ, et al. A multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-based biosensor for monitoring microcystin-LR in sources of drinking water supplies. Advanced Functional Materials [Internet]. 2013;23:1807-1816. WebsiteAbstract
A multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using vertically well-aligned, dense, millimeter-long MWCNT arrays with a narrow size distribution, grown on patterned Si substrates by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition. High temperature thermal treatment (2500 °C) in an Ar atmosphere is used to enhance the crystallinity of the pristine materials, followed by electrochemical functionalization in alkaline solution to produce oxygen-containing functional groups on the MWCNT surface, thus providing the anchoring sites for linking molecules that allow the immobilization of MC-LR onto the MWCNT array electrodes. Addition of the monoclonal antibodies specific to MC-LR in the incubation solutions offers the required sensor specificity for toxin detection. The performance of the MWCNT array biosensor is evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy, including polarized Raman measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, optical microscopy, and Faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A linear dependence of the electron-transfer resistance on the MC-LR concentration is observed in the range of 0.05 to 20 μg L-1, which enables cyanotoxin monitoring well below the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional concentration limit of 1 μg L-1 for MC-LR in drinking water. An highly sensitive Faradaic electrochemical impedance biosensor for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in sources of drinking water supplies is developed using millimeter-long multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays grown by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition with vertical alignment. A linear sensing response shows a wide microcystin-LR concentration range that is below the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional guideline limit of 1 μg L-1 for MC-LR in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Halouzka V, Jakubec P, Kvitek L, Likodimos V, Kontos AG, Papadopoulos K, Falaras P, Hrbac J. Deposition of nanostructured Ag films on siliconwafers by electrochemical/electrophoretic deposition for electrochemical and SERS sensing. Journal of the Electrochemical Society [Internet]. 2013;160:B54-B59. WebsiteAbstract
Electrolysis of ultrapure water in a two-electrode cell with silver anode and conductive substrate (Si wafer) as a cathode leads to the formation of nanostructured silver layers deposited on cathode. In the process, the silver anode is electrochemically dissolved to silver cations, which react with water (or OH• radicals derived from water electrolysis) forming silver oxide nanoparticles, which fill the interelectrode space by electrophoretic movement, diffusion and convection induced by temperature effects of electrolysis. During the process the silver oxide nanoparticles are partially transformed into silver nanoparticles. On the cathode, silver cations and silver/silver oxide nanoparticles undergo reduction to form nanostructured silver film. The results of the present study open a new, extremely simple and ultra-low cost way to prepare nanostructured silver films on conducting and semiconducting substrates. The prepared nanosilver coated silicon substrates exhibit high performances as amperometric sensors for hydrogen peroxide and also as SERS substrates. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society.
Moustakas NG, Kontos AG, Likodimos V, Katsaros F, Boukos N, Tsoutsou D, Dimoulas A, Romanos GE, Dionysiou DD, Falaras P. Inorganic-organic core-shell titania nanoparticles for efficient visible light activated photocatalysis. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental [Internet]. 2013;130-131:14-24. WebsiteAbstract
Nanostructured modified TiO2 (m-TiO2) was synthesized using the gel combustion method based on the calcination of an acidified alkoxide solution mixed with urea. The materials were characterized by Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), in comparison with reference material untreated with urea (ref-TiO2). The effect of both the urea content and calcination temperature were optimized, providing the optimal absorption threshold of 2.19eV for solar light harvesting. The photocatalytic performance of the m-TiO2 powder was tested for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) azo dye under UVA (350-365nm), visible (440-460nm), and daylight (350-750nm) illumination. The hybrid inorganic/organic material shows exceptional physicochemical properties and significant photocatalytic activity, especially in the visible, attributed to sensitization of the TiO2 by a thin porous layer of carbonacious species in controlled core-shell morphology. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Vaenas N, Bidikoudi M, Stergiopoulos T, Likodimos V, Kontos AG, Falaras P. Annealing effects on self-assembled TiO2 nanotubes and their behavior as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemical Engineering Journal [Internet]. 2013;224:121-127. WebsiteAbstract
Self-assembled highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown on Ti foils in NH4F ethylene glycol electrolyte under mild anodic oxidation conditions. The effect of annealing post-treatment on their structural properties was systematically investigated with respect to their electrical characteristics and photoelectrochemical performance in back-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A variety of parameters was controlled and optimized including the annealing temperature, the heating rate and duration of the thermal treatment. The obtained results confirmed a correlation between the crystalline/structural properties of the TiO2 nanotubes and their electrical characteristics, thus revealing the close interplay of crystal size, grain boundaries and crystallite interconnectivity with the electron dynamics (transport/ recombination) governing the DSC operation and efficiency. The high importance of a barrier layer at the interface between the nanotubes and the Ti foil was also highlighted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Andreou I, Amenitsch H, Likodimos V, Falaras P, Koutsoukos PG, Leontidis E. Organized silica films generated by evaporation-induced self-assembly as hosts for iron oxide nanoparticles. Materials [Internet]. 2013;6:1467-1484. WebsiteAbstract
In this work, we prepared oriented mesoporous thin films of silica on various solid substrates using the pluronic block copolymer P123 as a template. We attempted to insert guest iron oxide (FexOy) nanoparticles into these films by two different methods: (a) by co-precipitation-where iron precursors are introduced in the synthesis sol before deposition of the silica film-and subsequent oxide production during the film calcination step; (b) by preparing and calcining the silica films first then impregnating them with the iron precursor, obtaining the iron oxide nanoparticles by a second calcination step. We have examined the structural effects of the guest nanoparticles on the silica film structures using grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GISAXS), high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HRTEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman microscopy. Formation of nanoparticles by co-precipitation may induce substantial changes in the film structure leading, in our adopted process, to the appearance of lamellar ordering in the calcination stage. On the contrary, impregnation-based approaches perturb the film structures much more weakly, but are also less efficient in filling the pores with nanoparticles. © 2013 by the authors.
Marquez Velasco J, Kelaidis N, Xenogiannopoulou E, Raptis YS, Tsoutsou D, Tsipas P, Speliotis T, Pilatos G, Likodimos V, Falaras P, et al. Electronic band structure imaging of three layer twisted graphene on single crystal Cu(111). Applied Physics Letters [Internet]. 2013;103. WebsiteAbstract
Few layer graphene (FLG) is grown on single crystal Cu(111) by Chemical Vapor Deposition, and the electronic valence band structure is imaged by Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that graphene essentially grows polycrystalline. Three nearly ideal Dirac cones are observed along the Cu Γ ̄ K ̄ direction in k-space, attributed to the presence of ∼4°twisted three layer graphene with negligible interlayer coupling. The number of layers and the stacking order are compatible with Raman data analysis demonstrating the complementarity of the two techniques for a more accurate characterization of FLG. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Vaenas N, Stergiopoulos T, Kontos AG, Likodimos V, Falaras P. Influence of controlled-charge anodization processes on the morphology of TiO2 nanotubes and their efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. Electrochimica Acta [Internet]. 2013;113:490-496. WebsiteAbstract
The effect of the electrochemical anodization growth process on the development of self-organized TiO2 nanotube (NT) films and their efficiency as photoelectrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been comparatively investigated, by keeping constant the total anodization charge. Slow and rapid potentiostatic anodization processes were accordingly compared to the galvanostatic one, while a two step potentiostatic-galvanostatic technique was applied for the first time for the growth of TiO2 NT arrays, as a step forward in relation to the existing potentiostatic-potentiostatic (P-P) technique. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy verified the wide diversity in the morphological and structural characteristics of the TiO 2 NTs obtained by the different anodization modes. The novel approach of galvanostatic tube growth on a potentiostatically patterned Ti foil provided the most uniform TiO2 nanotubular films with clean top surface exempt of nanograss or cracks over extended areas. Evaluation of the TiO 2 NTs performance as photoelectrodes in DSC devices showed distinct differences of their electrical parameters that reflected finely the underlying structure/morphology variations of the different anodic oxidation conditions. Galvanostatic TiO2 NT films presented the most favorable (open-ordered) structure for DSC photoelectrodes with superior electrical performance, essentially impaired by a relatively low fill factor that requires improvement by appropriate post-treatment. Furthermore, despite the marked differences in morphology, the TiO2 NT photoelectrodes exhibited comparable overall performance (of the order of 4%), with only exception the P-P samples which presented slightly lower (about 25%) photovoltaic efficiency. These results indicate that the anodization charge is a critical factor that effectively controls the nanotubes behavior when they are used as photoelectrodes in DSCs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Romanos GE, Zubeir LF, Likodimos V, Falaras P, Kroon MC, Iliev B, Adamova G, Schubert TJS. Enhanced CO2 capture in binary mixtures of 1-Alkyl-3- methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquids with water. Journal of Physical Chemistry B [Internet]. 2013;117:12234-12251. WebsiteAbstract
Absorption of carbon dioxide and water in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliun tricyanomethanide ([C4C1im][TCM]) and 1-octyl-3- methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([C8C1im][TCM]) ionic liquids (ILs) was systematically investigated for the first time as a function of the H2O content by means of a gravimetric system together with in-situ Raman spectroscopy, excess molar volume (VE), and viscosity deviation measurements. Although CO2 absorption was marginally affected by water at low H2O molar fractions for both ILs, an increase of the H2O content resulted in a marked enhancement of both the CO2 solubility (ca. 4-fold) and diffusivity (ca. 10-fold) in the binary [CnC1im][TCM]/H2O systems, in contrast to the weak and/or detrimental influence of water in most physically and chemically CO2-absorbing ILs. In-situ Raman spectroscopy on the IL/CO2 systems verified that CO2 is physically absorbed in the dry ILs with no significant effect on their structural organization. A pronounced variation of distinct tricyanomethanide Raman modes was disclosed in the [CnC1im][TCM]/H2O mixtures, attesting to the gradual disruption of the anion-cation coupling by the hydrogen-bonded water molecules to the [TCM]- anions, in accordance with the positive excess molar volumes and negative viscosity deviations for the binary systems. Most importantly, CO2 absorption in the ILs/H2O mixtures at high water concentrations revealed that the [TCM]- Raman modes tend to restore their original state for the heavily hydrated ILs, in qualitative agreement with the intriguing nonmonotonous transients of CO 2 absorption kinetics unveiled by the gravimetric measurements for the hybrid solvents. A molecular exchange mechanism between CO2 in the gas phase and H2O in the liquid phase was thereby proposed to explain the enhanced CO2 absorption in the hybrid [C nC1im][TCM]//H2O solvents based on the subtle competition between the TCM-H2O and TCM-CO2 interactions, which renders these ILs very promising for CO2 separation applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Romanos GE, Athanasekou CP, Likodimos V, Aloupogiannis P, Falaras P. Hybrid ultrafiltration/photocatalytic membranes for efficient water treatment. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research [Internet]. 2013;52:13938-13947. WebsiteAbstract
The development of hybrid materials exhibiting the simultaneous action of photocatalysis and membrane filtration can lead to improved water treatment processes. Photocatalysis has the potential to solve problems related to the fouling of membranes, the generation of toxic condensates, and the existence of very small and harmful organic pollutants in the permeate effluent. On the other hand membranes, especially the ceramic ones, are appropriate supports for the deposition of thin photocatalytic layers due to their high affinity with the photocatalyst (e.g., TiO2) and the possibility to further stabilize and activate the deposit with calcination. In addition, membranes exhibit two surfaces that come into contact with the polluted water and can be exploited for the photocatalyst deposition. Thus, with appropriate design of the membrane module it is possible to illuminate both membrane surfaces and develop very efficient photocatalytic ultrafiltration processes. Such processes must involve "double sided active photocatalytic membranes", where the pollutant undergoes two sequential photodegradation steps, the first in contact with the feed surface and the second in contact with the permeate surface of the membrane. Moreover the asymmetric pore structure of ceramic membranes assures proper mixing of the fluid and better contact with the porous photocatalytic layers. In this work double side active photocatalytic ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were developed by means of different chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. Their performance in the elimination of methyl orange from water was elucidated by means of a prototype photocatalytic membrane reactor under continuous flow, applying UV irradiation on both membrane surfaces. Important aspects of membrane technology such as the evolution of water permeability and the energy consumption were compared with the standard and highly efficient nanofiltration (NF) process and the results indicated the beneficial effects of the hybrid UF/photocatalytic process. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Fotiou T, Triantis TM, Kaloudis T, Pastrana-Martínez LM, Likodimos V, Falaras P, Silva AMT, Hiskia A. Photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR and off-odor compounds in water under UV-A and solar light with a nanostructured photocatalyst based on reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 composite. Identification of intermediate products. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research [Internet]. 2013;52:13991-14000. WebsiteAbstract
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most common and toxic variant of the group of microcystins (MCs) produced during the formation of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) may also be produced during cyanobacterial blooms and can taint water causing undesirable taste and odor. The photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR, GSM, and MIB in water under both UV-A and solar light in the presence of reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 composite (GO-TiO2) was studied. Two commercially available TiO 2 materials (Degussa P25 and Kronos) and a reference TiO2 material prepared in the laboratory (ref-TiO2) were used for comparison. Under UV-A irradiation, Degussa P25 was the most efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of all target analytes followed by GO-TiO 2, ref-TiO2, and Kronos. Under solar light irradiation GO-TiO2 presented similar photocatalytic activity to Degussa P25, followed by Kronos and ref-TiO2 which were less efficient. Intermediate products formed during the photocatalytic process with GO-TiO 2 under solar light were identified and were found to be almost identical to those observed by Degussa P25/UV-A. Assessment of the residual toxicity of MC-LR during the course of treatment with GO-TiO2 showed that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR concentration. The photocatalytic performance of GO-TiO2 was also evaluated under solar light illumination in real surface water samples, and GO-TiO2 proved to be effective in the degradation of all target compounds. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Likodimos V, Han C, Pelaez M, Kontos AG, Liu G, Zhu D, Liao S, de la Cruz AA, O'Shea K, Dunlop PSM, et al. Anion-doped TiO2 nanocatalysts for water purification under visible light. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research [Internet]. 2013;52:13957-13964. WebsiteAbstract
Innovative sol-gel synthesis based on the self-assembling template method has been applied to synthesize mesoporous anion-doped TiO2 with N-F, S and C atoms using suitable surfactants and reagents, to improve simultaneously the structural, morphological, and electronic properties of TiO2 nanomaterials and achieve anion doping of titania with high visible light photoinduced reactivity. The incorporation of anion species in the titania structure resulted in the effective extension of TiO2 optical absorption in the visible range through the formation of intragap energy states. The anion-doped titania materials immobilized in the form of nanostructured thin films on glass substrates exhibited high photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of the microcystin-LR (MC-LR) cyanotoxin, a hazardous water pollutant of emerging concern, under visible light irradiation. The development of these visible light-activated nanocatalysts has the potential of providing environmentally benign routes for water treatment. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Bidikoudi M, Stergiopoulos T, Likodimos V, Romanos GE, Francisco M, Iliev B, Adamová G, Schubert TJS, Falaras P. Ionic liquid redox electrolytes based on binary mixtures of 1-alkyl-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide with 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide and implication in dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Materials Chemistry A [Internet]. 2013;1:10474-10486. WebsiteAbstract
Innovative redox electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were prepared using binary mixtures of 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) with 1-alkyl-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide, CνmimTCM (ν = 2, 4, 6, 8) ionic liquids (ILs) to lower the high viscosity of MPII. The investigation of the physicochemical properties of the IL blends as a function of temperature has shown that both density and viscosity strongly depend on the kind of the Cνmim cation in the mixture. The corresponding Raman spectra were dominated by the vibrational modes of the IL components in an additive way and confirmed the absence of any specific interaction, independent of the Cν alkyl chain length. The electrochemical properties (triiodide diffusion coefficients, specific conductivity), determined in symmetrical thin layer cells using polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, have shown that both diffusion and conductivity decreased with increasing viscosity, and further confirmed the electrolytes' compatibility with the cathode. Incorporation of the novel electrolytes in DSC devices revealed a systematic dependence of the cell photovoltaic performance on the alkyl chain length of CνmimTCM; the maximum power conversion efficiency exceeded 5 and 6.5% under 1 and 0.1 sun AM 1.5 G illumination, respectively, for the ionic liquid with the shortest alkyl chain. The solar cells were further characterized by EIS (IMPS) spectroscopy, exploring charge recombination dynamics and identifying conduction band edge shifts. Solidification of the electrolytes with silica nanoparticles, demonstrated that the ionic liquid electrolytes with long chain length (ν > 4) not only retain their efficiencies, but also exhibit a 22% efficiency enhancement, which is most pronounced for the electrolytes employing ionic liquids with the longest (hexyl- and octyl-) alkyl chains. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Nikoleli G-P, Ibupoto ZH, Nikolelis DP, Likodimos V, Psaroudakis N, Tzamtzis N, Willander M, Hianik T. Potentiometric cholesterol biosensing application of graphene electrode with stabilized polymeric lipid membrane. Central European Journal of Chemistry [Internet]. 2013;11:1554-1561. WebsiteAbstract
A novel potentiometric cholesterol biosensor has been fabricated through the immobilization of the stabilized polymeric lipid membrane onto graphene electrode. The stabilized polymeric lipid membrane is composed of cholesterol oxidase enzyme and polymerization mixture; which holds paramount influence on the properties of the cholesterol biosensor. The presented biosensor reveals an appreciable reproducibility, good selectivity and high sensing capability with a linear slope curve of ∼64 mV per decade. The strong biocompatibility among stabilized polymeric lipid membranes and human biofluids provides the possibility to use for real blood samples and other biological applications. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.
Katsanaki AV, Kontos AG, Maggos T, Pelaez M, Likodimos V, Pavlatou EA, Dionysiou DD, Falaras P. Photocatalytic oxidation of nitrogen oxides on N-F-doped titania thin films. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental [Internet]. 2013;140-141:619-625. WebsiteAbstract
Visible light activated nanostructured TiO2 with nitrogen and fluorine co-dopants were prepared by the surfactant assisted sol-gel method and immobilized on glass substrates by dip coating. The films were inserted inside a continuous flow photoreactor and examined for the photocatalytic oxidation of NO air pollutant with initial concentration of 200-800ppbv. The modified catalysts exhibited significant photocatalytic activity under daylight illumination, with maximum percentage of NO removal equal to 24.2% and photooxidation rate up to 0.66μgm-2s-1. The reaction rates increased proportionally to the incident light intensity whereas for the strongly absorbed UV light a deviation from linearity was observed. Mass balance during photooxidation was confirmed by determining the amount of NO3- product residues onto the photocatalyst surface. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.