Tan I, Sotiropoulou G, Taylor PC, Zamora L, Wendisch M. A Review of the Factors Influencing Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Progress and Outlook. In: Clouds and Their Climatic Impacts. American Geophysical Union (AGU); 2023. pp. 103-132. WebsiteAbstract
Summary Mixed-phase clouds are ubiquitous in the Arctic and play a critical role in Earth's energy budget at the surface and top-of-the-atmosphere. These clouds typically occupy the lower and mid-level troposphere and are composed of purely supercooled liquid droplets or mixtures of supercooled liquid water droplets and ice crystals. Here, we review progress in our understanding of the factors that control the formation and dissipation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, including the thermodynamic structure of the lower troposphere, warm and moist air intrusions into the Arctic, large-scale subsidence, and aerosol particles. We then provide a brief survey of numerous Arctic field campaigns that targeted local cloud-controlling factors and follow this with specific examples of how the Arctic Cloud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD)/ Physical feedback of Arctic PBL, Sea ice, Cloud And AerosoL (PASCAL) and Airborne measurements of radiative and turbulent FLUXes of energy and momentum in the Arctic boundary layer (AFLUX) field campaigns that took place in the vicinity of Svalbard in 2019 were able to advance our understanding on this topic to demonstrate the value of field campaigns. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of the outlook of future research in the study of Arctic cloud-controlling factors and provide several recommendations for the observational and modeling community to advance our understanding of the role of Arctic mixed-phase clouds in a rapidly changing climate.
de Boer G, McCusker GY, Sotiropoulou G, Gramlich Y, Browse J, Raut J-C. Furthering Understanding of Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation Interactions in the Arctic. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society [Internet]. 2022;103:E2484 – E2491. Website
Karalis M, Sotiropoulou G, Abel SJ, Bossioli E, Georgakaki P, Methymaki G, Nenes A, Tombrou M. Effects of secondary ice processes on a stratocumulus to cumulus transition during a cold-air outbreak. Atmospheric Research [Internet]. 2022;277. Website
Georgakaki P, Sotiropoulou G, Vignon É, Billault-Roux A-C, Berne A, Nenes A. Secondary ice production processes in wintertime alpine mixed-phase clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2022;22:1965 – 1988. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Ickes L, Nenes A, Ekman AML. Ice multiplication from ice-ice collisions in the high Arctic: Sensitivity to ice habit, rimed fraction, ice type and uncertainties in the numerical description of the process. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2021;21:9741 – 9760. Website
Bossioli E, Sotiropoulou G, Methymaki G, Tombrou M. Modeling Extreme Warm-Air Advection in the Arctic During Summer: The Effect of Mid-Latitude Pollution Inflow on Cloud Properties. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2021;126. Website
Vignon É, Alexander SP, DeMott PJ, Sotiropoulou G, Gerber F, Hill TCJ, Marchand R, Nenes A, Berne A. Challenging and Improving the Simulation of Mid-Level Mixed-Phase Clouds Over the High-Latitude Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2021;126. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Vignon E, Young G, Morrison H, O'Shea SJ, Lachlan-Cope T, Berne A, Nenes A. Secondary ice production in summer clouds over the Antarctic coast: An underappreciated process in atmospheric models. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2021;21:755 – 771. Website
Achtert P, Oconnor E, Brooks I, Sotiropoulou G, Shupe M, Pospichal B, Brooks B, Tjernström M. Properties of Arctic liquid and mixed-phase clouds from shipborne Cloudnet observations during ACSE 2014. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2020;20:14983 – 15002. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Sullivan S, Savre J, Lloyd G, Lachlan-Cope T, Ekman AML, Nenes A. The impact of secondary ice production on Arctic stratocumulus. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2020;20:1301 – 1316. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Bossioli E, Tombrou M. Modeling Extreme Warm-Air Advection in the Arctic: The Role of Microphysical Treatment of Cloud Droplet Concentration. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres [Internet]. 2019;124:3492 – 3519. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Tjernström M, Savre J, Ekman AML, Hartung K, Sedlar J. Large-eddy simulation of a warm-air advection episode in the summer Arctic. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society [Internet]. 2018;144:2449 – 2462. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Tjernström M, Sedlar J, Achtert P, Brooks BJ, Brooks IM, Perssond OPG, Prytherch J, Salisbury DJ, Shuped MD, et al. Atmospheric conditions during the arctic clouds in summer experiment (ACSE): Contrasting open water and sea ice surfaces during melt and freeze-up seasons. Journal of Climate [Internet]. 2016;29:8721 – 8744. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Sedlar J, Forbes R, Tjernström M. Summer Arctic clouds in the ECMWF forecast model: An evaluation of cloud parametrization schemes. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society [Internet]. 2016;142:387 – 400. Website
Tjernström M, Shupe MD, Brooks IM, Persson OPG, Prytherch J, Salisbury DJ, Sedlar J, Achtert P, Brooks BJ, Johnston PE, et al. Warm-air advection, air mass transformation and fog causes rapid ice melt. Geophysical Research Letters [Internet]. 2015;42:5594 – 5602. Website
Sotiropoulou G, Sedlar J, Tjernström M, Shupe MD, Brooks IM, Persson POG. The thermodynamic structure of summer Arctic stratocumulus and the dynamic coupling to the surface. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics [Internet]. 2014;14:12573 – 12592. Website