Publications by Year: 2006

2006
Toubekis, A.G.a, S. B. M. T. I. a G. C. (2006). Effect of different intensities of active recovery on sprint swimming performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 31, 709-716. WebsiteAbstract
Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration faster than passive recovery and, when the proper intensity is applied, a positive effect on performance is expected. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of different intensities of active recovery on performance during repeated sprint swimming. Nine male well-trained swimmers performed 8 repetitions of 25 m sprints (8 ± 25 m) interspersed with 45 s intervals, followed by a 50 m sprint test 6 min later. During the 45 s and 6 min interval periods, swimmers either rested passively (PAS) or swam at an intensity corresponding to 50% (ACT60) and 60% (ACT60) of their individual 100 m velocity. Blood lactate was higher during PAS compared with ACT50 and ACT60 trials (p < 0.05), whereas plasma ammonia and glycerol concentration were not different between trials (p > 0.05). Mean performance time for the 8 × 25 m sprints was better in the PAS compared with the ACT50 and ACT60 trials (PAS: 13.10 ± 0.07 vs. ACT50: 13.43 ± 0.10 and ACT60: 13.47 ± 0.10s, p < 0.05). The first 25 m sprint was not different across trials (p > 0.05), but performance decreased after sprint 2 during active recovery trials (ACT50 and ACT60) compared with the passive recovery (PAS) trial (p < 0.05). Performance time for the 50 m sprint performed 6 min after the 8 ± 25 m sprints was no different between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that active recovery at intensities corresponding to 50% and 60% of the 100 m velocity during repeated swimming sprints decreases performance. Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration, but does not affect performance on a 50 m sprint when 6 min recovery is provided. Passive recovery is advised during short-interval repeated sprint training in well-trained swimmers. © 2006 NRC Canada.
Tsolakis, C.K.a, B. V. D. G. C. a G. (2006). Influence of a twelve-month conditioning program on physical growth, serum hormones, and neuromuscular performance of peripubertal male fencers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 908-914. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effects of a typical fencing training program on selected hormones, neuromuscular performance, and anthropometric parameters in peripubertal boys. Two sets of measurements, before training and after 12 months of training, were performed on 2 groups of 11- to 13-year-old boys. One group consisted of fencers (n = 8), who trained regularly for the 12-month period, and the other group (n = 8) consisted of inactive children of the same age. There was no difference in Tanner's maturation stage of the 2 groups before (controls, 2.5 ± 0.3; fencers, 2.1 ± 0.3) and after the 12 months (controls, 3.0 ± 0.3; fencers, 3.0 ± 0.3). Serum testosterone, growth hormone, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, and leptin changed significantly over time, reaching similar values in the 2 groups at the end of the study. Significantly greater increases in body mass (16 ± 3%) and leg cross-sectional area (CSA) (32 ± 7%) were observed only in the fencers' group, and these differences disappeared when height was set as a changing covariate. Although there was a greater increase in height for the fencers compared to the control group (8.6 ± 1.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9 cm, p < 0.01), the height reached at the end of the study was almost identical in the 2 groups (controls, 163.6 ± 5.1; fencers, 165.4 ± 2.8). Arm CSA, handgrip strength, and vertical jump performance changed significantly over time for both groups, with no differences between groups. It was concluded that a typical fencing training program for peripubertal boys did not have any effect on selected growth and anabolic hormones and did not influence the normal growth process, as this was reflected by changes in selected anthropometric and neuromuscular performance parameters. This may be because of the characteristics of the present fencing training program, which may not be adequate to alter children's hormonal functions in such a way as to override the rapid changes occurring during puberty. © 2006 National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Tsolakis, C.a b, B. V. G. C. a G. (2006). Anthropometric profile and limb asymmetries in young male and female fencers. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 50, 201-215. WebsiteAbstract
The aim of this study was to establish an anthropometric profile of young fencers separated into four different age groups and to examine the degree of upper and lower limb asymmetry. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured in 152 fencers (84 males and 68 females) during the Greek fencing championships. Fencers were divided into 4 age categories (boys/girls, cadets, junior and senior) according to the International Fencing Federation rules. The larger differences in anthropometric characteristics of both males and females were observed between the very young group (10-13yrs) and the older groups, while for most parameters, there were no differences between the two older groups (18-20yrs and >20yrs). There was no significant difference between the 10-13yrs groups of males and females in almost all anthropometric characteristics. Somatotype ratings were relatively stable across age groups. The mean somatotype of male fencers was 3.1-2.6-3.2. The female fencers were mainly situated in the ectomorph -endomorph region, and had a mean somatotype of 3.8-1.8-3.3. Arm CSA was higher in males compared to females in all age groups, except for the 10-13yrs group. However, leg CSA was not different between genders in all age groups. Significant CSA asymmetries were observed between the dominant and the non-dominant sides in the arm and leg in both genders. Arm asymmetries were evident from an early age, while leg asymmetries were not observed in the younger group. The lack of significant differences between males and females for the 10-13yrs groups in most of the anthropometric characteristics, should be taken into account in talent selection. ©2006 Teviot Scientific Publications.
c Mavrommataki, E.a, B. K. M. G. C. a S. (2006). Recovery of power output and heart rate kinetics during repeated bouts of rowing exercise with different rest intervals. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 115-122. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m) performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5), 3 (INT3) and 6 min (INT6), allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2% for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively). Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01) only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (∼197 b·min-1) and the HR time constant (∼13 s) were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5), HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6) on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout. ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
b Tsolakis, C. a, Bogdanis, G. C. a, & Vagenas, G. a. (2006). Anthropometric profile and limb asymmetries in young male and female fencers. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 50, 201-215. WebsiteAbstract
The aim of this study was to establish an anthropometric profile of young fencers separated into four different age groups and to examine the degree of upper and lower limb asymmetry. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured in 152 fencers (84 males and 68 females) during the Greek fencing championships. Fencers were divided into 4 age categories (boys/girls, cadets, junior and senior) according to the International Fencing Federation rules. The larger differences in anthropometric characteristics of both males and females were observed between the very young group (10-13yrs) and the older groups, while for most parameters, there were no differences between the two older groups (18-20yrs and >20yrs). There was no significant difference between the 10-13yrs groups of males and females in almost all anthropometric characteristics. Somatotype ratings were relatively stable across age groups. The mean somatotype of male fencers was 3.1-2.6-3.2. The female fencers were mainly situated in the ectomorph -endomorph region, and had a mean somatotype of 3.8-1.8-3.3. Arm CSA was higher in males compared to females in all age groups, except for the 10-13yrs group. However, leg CSA was not different between genders in all age groups. Significant CSA asymmetries were observed between the dominant and the non-dominant sides in the arm and leg in both genders. Arm asymmetries were evident from an early age, while leg asymmetries were not observed in the younger group. The lack of significant differences between males and females for the 10-13yrs groups in most of the anthropometric characteristics, should be taken into account in talent selection. ©2006 Teviot Scientific Publications.
Mavrommataki, E. a, c Bogdanis, G. C. a, Kaloupsis, S. b, & Maridaki, M. a. (2006). Recovery of power output and heart rate kinetics during repeated bouts of rowing exercise with different rest intervals. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5, 115-122. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m) performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5), 3 (INT3) and 6 min (INT6), allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2% for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively). Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01) only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (∼197 b·min-1) and the HR time constant (∼13 s) were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5), HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6) on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout. ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
Toubekis, A. G. a, Smilios, I. a, Bogdanis, G. C. b, Mavridis, G. a, & Tokmakidis, S. P. a. (2006). Effect of different intensities of active recovery on sprint swimming performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 31, 709-716. WebsiteAbstract
Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration faster than passive recovery and, when the proper intensity is applied, a positive effect on performance is expected. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of different intensities of active recovery on performance during repeated sprint swimming. Nine male well-trained swimmers performed 8 repetitions of 25 m sprints (8 ± 25 m) interspersed with 45 s intervals, followed by a 50 m sprint test 6 min later. During the 45 s and 6 min interval periods, swimmers either rested passively (PAS) or swam at an intensity corresponding to 50% (ACT60) and 60% (ACT60) of their individual 100 m velocity. Blood lactate was higher during PAS compared with ACT50 and ACT60 trials (p < 0.05), whereas plasma ammonia and glycerol concentration were not different between trials (p > 0.05). Mean performance time for the 8 × 25 m sprints was better in the PAS compared with the ACT50 and ACT60 trials (PAS: 13.10 ± 0.07 vs. ACT50: 13.43 ± 0.10 and ACT60: 13.47 ± 0.10s, p < 0.05). The first 25 m sprint was not different across trials (p > 0.05), but performance decreased after sprint 2 during active recovery trials (ACT50 and ACT60) compared with the passive recovery (PAS) trial (p < 0.05). Performance time for the 50 m sprint performed 6 min after the 8 ± 25 m sprints was no different between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that active recovery at intensities corresponding to 50% and 60% of the 100 m velocity during repeated swimming sprints decreases performance. Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration, but does not affect performance on a 50 m sprint when 6 min recovery is provided. Passive recovery is advised during short-interval repeated sprint training in well-trained swimmers. © 2006 NRC Canada.
Tsolakis, C. K. a, Bogdanis, G. C. a, Vagenas, G. K. a, & Dessypris, A. G. b. (2006). Influence of a twelve-month conditioning program on physical growth, serum hormones, and neuromuscular performance of peripubertal male fencers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 908-914. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effects of a typical fencing training program on selected hormones, neuromuscular performance, and anthropometric parameters in peripubertal boys. Two sets of measurements, before training and after 12 months of training, were performed on 2 groups of 11- to 13-year-old boys. One group consisted of fencers (n = 8), who trained regularly for the 12-month period, and the other group (n = 8) consisted of inactive children of the same age. There was no difference in Tanner's maturation stage of the 2 groups before (controls, 2.5 ± 0.3; fencers, 2.1 ± 0.3) and after the 12 months (controls, 3.0 ± 0.3; fencers, 3.0 ± 0.3). Serum testosterone, growth hormone, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, and leptin changed significantly over time, reaching similar values in the 2 groups at the end of the study. Significantly greater increases in body mass (16 ± 3%) and leg cross-sectional area (CSA) (32 ± 7%) were observed only in the fencers' group, and these differences disappeared when height was set as a changing covariate. Although there was a greater increase in height for the fencers compared to the control group (8.6 ± 1.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9 cm, p < 0.01), the height reached at the end of the study was almost identical in the 2 groups (controls, 163.6 ± 5.1; fencers, 165.4 ± 2.8). Arm CSA, handgrip strength, and vertical jump performance changed significantly over time for both groups, with no differences between groups. It was concluded that a typical fencing training program for peripubertal boys did not have any effect on selected growth and anabolic hormones and did not influence the normal growth process, as this was reflected by changes in selected anthropometric and neuromuscular performance parameters. This may be because of the characteristics of the present fencing training program, which may not be adequate to alter children's hormonal functions in such a way as to override the rapid changes occurring during puberty. © 2006 National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Toubekis, A. G., Smilios, I., Bogdanis, G. C., Mavridis, G., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2006). Effect of different intensities of active recovery on sprint swimming performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 31(6), 709 - 716. presented at the 2006. WebsiteAbstract
Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration faster than passive recovery and, when the proper intensity is applied, a positive effect on performance is expected. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of different intensities of active recovery on performance during repeated sprint swimming. Nine male well-trained swimmers performed 8 repetitions of 25 m sprints (8 ± 25 m) interspersed with 45 s intervals, followed by a 50 m sprint test 6 min later. During the 45 s and 6 min interval periods, swimmers either rested passively (PAS) or swam at an intensity corresponding to 50% (ACT60) and 60% (ACT60) of their individual 100 m velocity. Blood lactate was higher during PAS compared with ACT50 and ACT60 trials (p < 0.05), whereas plasma ammonia and glycerol concentration were not different between trials (p > 0.05). Mean performance time for the 8 × 25 m sprints was better in the PAS compared with the ACT50 and ACT60 trials (PAS: 13.10 ± 0.07 vs. ACT50: 13.43 ± 0.10 and ACT60: 13.47 ± 0.10s, p < 0.05). The first 25 m sprint was not different across trials (p > 0.05), but performance decreased after sprint 2 during active recovery trials (ACT50 and ACT60) compared with the passive recovery (PAS) trial (p < 0.05). Performance time for the 50 m sprint performed 6 min after the 8 ± 25 m sprints was no different between trials (p > 0.05). These results indicate that active recovery at intensities corresponding to 50% and 60% of the 100 m velocity during repeated swimming sprints decreases performance. Active recovery reduces blood lactate concentration, but does not affect performance on a 50 m sprint when 6 min recovery is provided. Passive recovery is advised during short-interval repeated sprint training in well-trained swimmers. © 2006 NRC Canada.
Tsolakis, C. K., Bogdanis, G. C., Vagenas, G. K., & Dessypris, A. G. (2006). Influence of a twelve-month conditioning program on physical growth, serum hormones, and neuromuscular performance of peripubertal male fencers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(4), 908 - 914. presented at the 2006. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effects of a typical fencing training program on selected hormones, neuromuscular performance, and anthropometric parameters in peripubertal boys. Two sets of measurements, before training and after 12 months of training, were performed on 2 groups of 11- to 13-year-old boys. One group consisted of fencers (n = 8), who trained regularly for the 12-month period, and the other group (n = 8) consisted of inactive children of the same age. There was no difference in Tanner's maturation stage of the 2 groups before (controls, 2.5 ± 0.3; fencers, 2.1 ± 0.3) and after the 12 months (controls, 3.0 ± 0.3; fencers, 3.0 ± 0.3). Serum testosterone, growth hormone, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, and leptin changed significantly over time, reaching similar values in the 2 groups at the end of the study. Significantly greater increases in body mass (16 ± 3%) and leg cross-sectional area (CSA) (32 ± 7%) were observed only in the fencers' group, and these differences disappeared when height was set as a changing covariate. Although there was a greater increase in height for the fencers compared to the control group (8.6 ± 1.2 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9 cm, p < 0.01), the height reached at the end of the study was almost identical in the 2 groups (controls, 163.6 ± 5.1; fencers, 165.4 ± 2.8). Arm CSA, handgrip strength, and vertical jump performance changed significantly over time for both groups, with no differences between groups. It was concluded that a typical fencing training program for peripubertal boys did not have any effect on selected growth and anabolic hormones and did not influence the normal growth process, as this was reflected by changes in selected anthropometric and neuromuscular performance parameters. This may be because of the characteristics of the present fencing training program, which may not be adequate to alter children's hormonal functions in such a way as to override the rapid changes occurring during puberty. © 2006 National Strength & Conditioning Association.
Tsolakis, C., Bogdanis, G. C., & Vagenas, G. (2006). Anthropometric profile and limb asymmetries in young male and female fencers. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 50(3), 201 - 215. presented at the 2006. WebsiteAbstract
The aim of this study was to establish an anthropometric profile of young fencers separated into four different age groups and to examine the degree of upper and lower limb asymmetry. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured in 152 fencers (84 males and 68 females) during the Greek fencing championships. Fencers were divided into 4 age categories (boys/girls, cadets, junior and senior) according to the International Fencing Federation rules. The larger differences in anthropometric characteristics of both males and females were observed between the very young group (10-13yrs) and the older groups, while for most parameters, there were no differences between the two older groups (18-20yrs and >20yrs). There was no significant difference between the 10-13yrs groups of males and females in almost all anthropometric characteristics. Somatotype ratings were relatively stable across age groups. The mean somatotype of male fencers was 3.1-2.6-3.2. The female fencers were mainly situated in the ectomorph -endomorph region, and had a mean somatotype of 3.8-1.8-3.3. Arm CSA was higher in males compared to females in all age groups, except for the 10-13yrs group. However, leg CSA was not different between genders in all age groups. Significant CSA asymmetries were observed between the dominant and the non-dominant sides in the arm and leg in both genders. Arm asymmetries were evident from an early age, while leg asymmetries were not observed in the younger group. The lack of significant differences between males and females for the 10-13yrs groups in most of the anthropometric characteristics, should be taken into account in talent selection. ©2006 Teviot Scientific Publications.
Mavrommataki, E., Bogdanis, G. C., Kaloupsis, S., & Maridaki, M. (2006). Recovery of power output and heart rate kinetics during repeated bouts of rowing exercise with different rest intervals. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 5(1), 115 - 122. presented at the 2006. WebsiteAbstract
This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m) performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5), 3 (INT3) and 6 min (INT6), allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2% for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively). Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01) only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (∼197 b·min-1) and the HR time constant (∼13 s) were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5), HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6) on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout. ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.