In ELT contexts, the concept of ELF awareness has been proposed as a means of developing the skills, strategies, and overall outlook that learners require to competently participate in ELF interactions. Depending on the teaching context, this can be a demanding process. We discuss the ELF-aware instructional interventions carried out by two practitioners working in high-stakes exam preparation contexts in Greece. These contexts are predominantly Standard English oriented. The interventions described an attempt to put into practice the principles of ELF-aware pedagogy, namely awareness of language and language use, awareness of instructional practice, and awareness of learning. The innovative aspect of these interventions is that they do not run contrary to the curriculum of these high-stakes exam preparation classes. On the contrary, they complement the courseware used in these contexts with authentic audiovisual materials and original metalinguistic activities that boost learners’ self-confidence as ELF speakers and as candidates of these exams.
The article proposes a framework for integrating English as a lingua franca (ELF) research in English language teaching (ELT), predominantly pedagogy, but also teacher education, materials development and evaluation, policy design and planning, assessment and testing. The main concept here is ELF awareness, which orientates a set of principles that refer to the knowledge, attitudes, and skillset of ELT stakeholders and ELT products with regard to issues and concerns raised in the ELF (and, by extension, the English as an international language and the World Englishes) research literature, and the extent to which they have relevance for local ELT contexts. The article makes the case that ELF awareness does not characterize a unique instructional approach to teaching and learning, but integrates the learner- and learning-centred ‘ESP approach’ put forward by English for specific purposes scholars in the 1980s and widely accepted subsequently in ELT. Furthermore, ELF awareness is viewed as a continuum that depicts the gradual transformation of stakeholders’ attitudes, to the extent that local contexts and stakeholders’ needs and wants allow.
The paper describes a framework for the education of ESOL teachers that is inspired by principles grounded in research on English as a lingua franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE). The essential feature of such a framework is that it involves interested teachers in a critical reorientation of their beliefs toward English language teaching, learning and communication. This transformative framework informs what we call the ‘ELF-aware’ teacher education component. We then present a framework for a transformative perspective for ELF-aware and WE-aware teachers and describe the phases of a teacher education project that attempted to put this framework into practice.
In foreign language contexts, course books assume a considerable amount of responsibility for the structuring of class time, classroom interaction, and language learning. In this paper, we evaluate EFL course book materials by considering their structure and effectiveness through survey questionnaires administered to teachers working in Greek state primary schools (4th and 5th grades) and via in-depth interviews with the book authors. Our research has shown that materials production can be a predominantly top–down process, in which policy makers, materials authors and teachers can draw independent pathways to developing and implementing the final product, i.e. the course book. The findings of the study have implications for teaching, teacher training, materials design and policy making in contexts where learners use course books for foreign language learning.
The paper discusses the challenges and opportunities that the English as a lingua franca (ELF) paradigm raises for ESOL teacher education. I argue that one of the prominent implications of the ELF paradigm for ESOL teachers is the need to review and ultimately change their convictions about key aspects of foreign language teaching, such as normativity, the role of native/non-native speakers, and the function of teacher feedback in the foreign language classroom. I review evidence from the ELF literature that supports such a perspective and discuss the kind of reflective reviewing that teachers need to engage in. I argue that, while the critical approach is certainly the right way to go, it is not enough. What is necessary is a more rigorous approach that would go beyond merely exposing teachers to the principles and criteria of ELF and prompt them to critically consider and ultimately transform their deeper convictions about these issues. I present a framework for such a transformative perspective that aims at educating the ELF-aware teacher.
The paper presents a notional account of the challenges facing the introduction of English as an international lingua franca (ELF) curriculum in the state schools of the expanding circle, taking Greece as a case in point. It broadly delineates an ELF curriculum as one focusing on the skills necessary for carrying out successful communication involving non-native speakers and then highlights a set of challenges linked to both teaching context and teachers’ perceptions of professional identity. It focuses on challenges related to three facets of the professional identity of academically trained Greek state school EFL teachers, namely, their roles as users, specialists, and, ultimately, custodians of English for their learners and wider community. These facets are discussed with reference to a description of the country's current sociolinguistic and educational profile. The paper concludes with an overview of the strengths of an ELF curriculum for Greek state schools and discusses implications for ELF teacher education.
The article responds to the emerging need for a general framework for ELF (English as a lingua franca) teacher education that would appropriately inform and sensitize ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) practi-tioners about ELF teaching matters. The teacher education model put forward is based on the transformative framework for adult education suggested by Mezirow and has five phases. The framework aims at bringing about the much-needed paradigm shift in postmodern ESOL pedagogy by transform-ing ESOL teachers' worldviews about English and English language pedagogy and empowering them in bringing about the necessary changes in their own teaching context.
This article presents a survey of Greek EFL teachers' (N = 421) attitudes regarding their pronunciation beliefs and practices. It touches on two sets of questions. First, it refers to teachers' viewpoints regarding pronunciation-specific issues and the possible links between pronunciation teaching, English as an international language (EIL), and the sociocultural identity of nonnative speakers of English (NNSs). Second, it tries to establish the extent to which these teachers are aware of EIL-related matters, such as the need for mutual intelligibility in NNS-NNS communication. We conclude that teachers' viewpoints are predominantly norm bound. We further attempt to make sense of these viewpoints by referring to (a) the teachers' sense of being the custodians of the English language as regards English language learners and (b) the wider sociocultural linguistic background in Greece (which involves a history of diglossia and a recent experience of a massive inflow of immigrants). We go on to suggest ways to raise teachers' awareness of EIL-related concerns by suggesting that they use their immediate geopolitical and sociocultural surroundings.
The article concentrates on setting some specific criteria for the EIL (‘English as an international language’) classroom and raising teachers’ awareness of what is needed in order to identify and teach EIL classrooms. It starts by distinguishing between those communicative and teaching situations that are norm-bound and those that prioritise interlocutors’ mutual comprehensibility and cultural identity. On that basis, it goes on to delineate the EIL domain in norm-bound terms and suggests that teachers should also concentrate on teaching English as an intercultural language (EIcL). It subsequently addresses the following questions: What are the defining characteristics of an EIL/EIcL situation? How can a teacher identify such a situation and by what means can this be done? To what extent are EIL/EIcL situations similar to or different from other ESL, EFL, or more general ESOL situations? Are all EIL/EIcL situations around the world the ‘same’ and, if not, to what extent are they similar/different? To what extent do learners’ and teachers’ attitudes towards English, language learning and their own national, cultural and personal identity matter in EIL/EIcL learning/teaching?
The paper addresses the commonly acknowledged challenge of globalisation with respect to the area of English language teaching and, more particularly, teaching English to speakers of foreign languages. It is argued that some of the primary issues involved concern the increasing role of technology and communication in modern societies and the looming conflict between local communities and the decision-making bodies. It is further suggested that the global English language teaching (ELT) community has already gone a long way towards researching and, in certain cases, resolving such conflicts and has much insightful material to offer. The paper incorporates a discussion of the notion of English as an international language and the question of 'ownership' of such a language. The roles and defining characteristics of the native and non-native speaker of English are then considered and the various occasions when communication and learning take place are briefly reviewed, with frequent reference to the authors' own teaching situation, i.e. English language teaching in Greece. The paper culminates with an appreciation of the pedagogical, ethical and methodological considerations that are suggested as a means of sensitising TESOL teacher education vis à vis the global status of English (also with the Greek context in mind).
The paper brings together recent work in English for specific purposes/languages for specific purposes (ESP/LSP) and adult education and puts forward an integrative model for ESP curriculum design. It outlines a set of characteristics that identify the ESP learner within the general adult learning framework. Taking current theories on the adult learner profile as a starting point, it then focuses on a model that associates adult education principles with effective ESP learning. This model has two sides. One side requires the adult learner's ESP teacher to come to terms with adulthood-oriented considerations (i.e. issues unique to adult learning), such as ‘mess-management’, motivation and adult learning cycles. The other side involves both a number of ELT-methodology-specific communicative strategies that are indispensable in the ESP class, such as self-directed learning techniques, as well as enhancing the role of the ESP teacher as counsellor. Some implications for the construction of CALL programmes are discussed and the paper ends with the suggestion that all approaches to teaching learners in the ESP framework can benefit from the successful handling of both aspects of the earlier model.
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