Publications by Year: 2012

In this paper we propose the design and implementationof a Turing Test (TT) for the research of the singingvoice. Although the TT is mainly related to the researchfield of Artificial Intelligence (AI), being used both as acriterion and an operational guide by the scientists of thisfield, with the present paper we attempt to introduce arather different approach to the TT. Given the fact ofvarious disputes over the validity of the TT as a criterionof AI, one might argue that the TT is nothing more thana ‘philosophical fossil’, a left-over and remainder of pastand outdated philosophical assumptions about the natureof human intelligence. The problem of an unavoidablesubjectivity in the results of TT experiments hasstrengthen the question about the usefulness of the TT asa research means. Our goal is to introduce a new scopefor the use of the TT not as a criterion of intelligence butas an ‘instrument’ for tracing certain features of humanjudgment in various fields. Pretty much in the fashion ofa Transcendental philosophical stance, we face the TT asa procedure in which what is judged is judgement itself.Specifically, in the present paper we attempt to exhibitthe way in which a TT can be used to trace and highlightfeatures of human judgment regarding the singing voice.Are certain factors like culture, gender, age or familiaritywith music technology basic parameters of the way inwhich humans perceive and judge artificial and naturalsinging voice? Is the TT a worn off chapter in the historyof the philosophy of AI or could it be a brand new toolfor the research in fields like psychoacoustics, cognitivemusicology, social psychology of music and generallyfor the research on research itself?1 This is the kind ofquestions that we intend to raise concerning the future ofthe TT, starting with a paper for a possible ‘singingvoice TT’.
Batsis D, Bitsikas X, Georgaki A, Evaggelou A, Tigas P. Biomusic: The carrier. Technoetic Arts. 2012;9:209–216.Abstract
The present work investigates the concept of sound, in relation to the new means andsciences under different perspectives, ultimately providing an analysis of the newbornartistic movement of bioart. It deals with two parts. The first part of the study is basedupon reference, investigating the interconnection between art and science. Thismechanism is characterized by transformation processes in the interdisciplinarypractices that are applied mainly by various artists and movements of the second postworld war period. The expressive element seeks for an unworldly explanation throughaudio and visual conjunctions. This nature is obvious in Paul Klee’s reflections ofmusical elements in his paintings, Rimington’s attempts to marry audiovisual influencesin his “colour organs”, the experimentations of composers like Xenakis and Stockhausenat various locations with light and color proves the continuous quest to render sound bythe use of new means. Technology is a vital component of transformation as it enhancesthe syncretic creativity for various art domains like the ones that Fluxus deployed. ΝamJun Paik and Dick Higgins introduce radical techniques in their performances as theydetach their selves from the parameters that define composition and use the mind andpower of sentiment in order to identify reality aurally and optically. Towards the end ofthe 20th century we witness the appearance of new art forms like bioart. The humanbody, host of material and immaterial functions comes to the forefront of art practice. Itsrelation to elements such as oscillations and vibrations that express the energy flow areanalyzed through the model of spiritualism that came from eastern thought. The notionof digital embodiment is presented as a reminder, highlighting the importance oftechnology in biotechnology and genetics.The second part of the study involves an experiment. This is how the concept ofbiomusic is applied with the use of ECG data from the MIT PhysioNet database. Assound penetrates the entire human body, it can be analyzed in all of its phasma. Usingthat information we attempt to translate/transform that biological sound phenomena intomusic. The sound produced by the elaboration of data which result from biologicalfunctions, can be described as Biomusic. It can be transformed into frequencies relatedto time and be expressed into music themes. Sonification plays an important role in thisresearch as it constitutes a quick and precise rendering of the polymorphic information(in this case the E.C.G.) in musical notes. This modeling and musical attribution leads intwo distinguished results each one of them concerning different clinical cases (all databelong to a normal heart function and a pathological one). The invention of this novelsystem is suggested for the scientific as well as for the music discipline. It has the abilityto be implemented in an experimental form and obtain an educational character. Thetransformation process avoids compensation throughout the matching process inbetween E.C.G. functions and music, while focusing on the aesthetic factor at the sametime. Sound meets art in the world of Biomusic as it takes shape through technology,constituting a new medium to further evolve the model of ‘’biology into art’’transformation.