This study examines the attitudes of 552 undergraduate heterosexual students—of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, the School of Physical Education and Sport Science—towards male and female homosexuality. The authors begin with an overview of the hegemonic gender order in sports, subsequently examining the factors/variables that determine homophobic attitudes in male and female heterosexual students. Initially, 577 physical education students were asked to participate: 25 declared they were non-heterosexual (homosexual and bisexual). The 552 students that agreed to continue completed a demographic questionnaire and Herek’s (1994) Attitudes Towards Lesbian and Gay Men
Scale (ATLG), specifically the Greek version (Grigoropoulos, Papacharitou, & Moraitou, 2010). The findings show that sport participation/engagement is not a factor that influences attitudes. The four factors that predict attitudes towards homosexuals are gender, religiosity, political leaning and socializing with a non-heterosexual. The results indicate that anti-homophobia strategies are required. Accordingly, the article concludes with recommendations and proposals for future research, arguing for the integration of a gender perspective—including unconscious bias training—diversity policies and monitoring processes in organisational and institutional structures to change attitudes, and eventually eliminate systemic discrimination directed at individuals or groups due to sexual orientation and gender identity.
Keywords : Gender, hegemonic masculinity, non-heterosexuals, sports, respect for diversity, Homophobia, homosexuality, gender attitudes, gender order, sport, physical education