Hymnale Ambrosianum. The structural background of a paleochristian hymnological modelThe monograph covers exhaustively all aspects of the structural material of Ambrose’s hymnological prototype. Given that the locating of the structural material is identified with its semiological understanding in the researcher’s language, the translation-related elaboration of the texts could not be excluded from this study.At its beginning the book comprises: the Table of Contents (pp. 9- 11), the Foreword (pp. 13-14) and Abbreviations (pp. 15-19). The following parts are: 1. Introduction (pp. 21-65). The first paragraph entitled Foreword (pp. 22-30), focuses on the significance of Ambrose’s Hymnologion. It focuses on the fourteen authentic hymns by Ambrose, as an aspect constituting common knowledge in the two ancient liturgical traditions, those of West and East. The next paragraph is entitled References of the Research of Ambrose’s Hymnology (pp. 30-39), which is a presentation of hitherto literary studies and publications of Ambrose’s Hymnologion with critical observations. The title of the next paragraph is The Hard to Explore Structural Dimension of Hymnale Ambrosianum (pp. 39-47). This paragraph locates the gaps in the research of Ambrose’s hymnography as a spiritual creation. It does this through the prism of the question of whether as a prototype of the hymnological development Ambrose’s hymnography fits within the structural basis of the treasury of the tradition of worship of the Church universally and whether, as such, it could point to a desirable balance between the creative freedom and the required adherence to the treasury of the Holy Tradition of worship. The fourth paragraph is entitled The Translational Gap of Ambrose’s Hymns in Greek Bibliography (pp. 47-62). The fifth and last paragraph entitled The Translational Approach of the Present Publication (pp. 62-65) is divided into three subsections: the ad litteram translation (literal, word by word translation), the ad sensum translation (translation according to meaning) and lastly, the translations where Latin alphabet is used for writing in Greek. 2. Chapter I (pp. 67-154) entitled The Ambrosian Context is divided into two parts. The first part, entitled The Mystic and Teacher (pp. 67-90), offers a portrayal of Ambrose while focusing on the aspects that are significant for the topic of the present study. The second part, entitled Divine Mystagogy (pp. 90-154) deals with the three basic components of Ambrose’s pedagogy: (a) the fishing of souls through preaching (liturgical Evangelism), (b) the passing on of the Eucharistic theology and its embrace by the faithful and (c) the formation of an appealing and complete prototype of the mystagogical performance. These three components place the regular presence of the faithful inside the Church and the creation of a live, participation-loving and zealously pulsating community at the epicentre of Ambrose’s pastoral aim. 3. Chapter II (pp. 155-179) bears the title The Dogmatic Reading of Ambrose’s Hymns. This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part is entitled Confession of Faith (pp. 155-170), whereas the second part is entitled Confession of Martyrdom (pp. 170-179). In the first part, the commentary on the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed with verses from Ambrose’s hymns demonstrates that Ambrose’s hymns are a vehicle for transmitting and consolidating of the foundational dogmas of orthodoxy. In the second part, we make use of the translations included in the publication part of this study (ad litteram, ad sensum and 19th century Greek texts with Latin characters) in order to demonstrate Ambrose’s position in relation to those dogmatic teachings which are not included in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed. The main axis of that second part of Chapter II is the teaching regarding the Martyrdom. It is upon that teaching that Peter’s primacy is constructed, as a primacy of the Confession of Faith. The equality between Peter and Paul in terms of the Martyrdom, the honouring of the memory of the Martyrs by the Church and the veneration of their relics by the faithful within the context of Divine Worship are aspects which are also established. 4. Chapter III (pp. 181-230) is entitled Ambrose’s Hymnological Prototype. The Introduction (pp. 181-188) is followed by the section entitled Melopoetic and Performative Method (pp. 188-212), where within three separate paragraphs, three prototypes of the hymnological development are presented and analysed, based on the research sources. These prototypes are presented and analysed according to the chronological order of the epochs to which they belong and not according to the epoch of the source’s writer. More specifically, these are: the prototype of Antiochians Flavian and Diodoros, the prototype of Ambrose and the prototype of Chrysostom. In the fourth paragraph a common historical provenance of these three prototypes is located. The similarity between Ambrose’s prototype and other prototypes which are collectively of Eastern provenance provides an answer to the crucial question posed in the Introduction, meaning that Ambrose’s is a prototype of hymnological development which fits within the structural basis of the treasury of worship of the entire Church. The third part of Chapter III bears the title Poetic Art (pp. 213-230) and it relates to the idiosyncratic aspect of Ambrose’s poetic art, which was imitated by later hymnographers of the Western Church. The monograph locates these aspects and includes them by paying attention to that which is particular as distinct to that which is general. It does this while paying attention to the simplicity of the texts, the density of the narrative meanings and the dominating lyricism. Accordingly, the monograph conducts the analysis of the content of the sources which is arranged into three subsections with following titles: The Oikonomia of the Depicting Word (pp. 213-219), The Perspective of the Verbal Image (pp. 219-227) and Ambrose’s Lyrical State (pp. 227-230). The last part of the monograph is the publication part (pp. 233-319) which includes: (a) the threefold publication of the text of the fourteen authentic Ambrosian Hymns (the Latin original, the Greek ad litteram translation and the Greek ad sensum translation), (b) the publication of the Latin original and the equivalent Greek text with Latin characters of five hymns which have been attributed to Ambrose in the past and which fit within the broader category of imitations of Hymnale Ambrosianum - the texts confirm the position supported in this monograph, that Ambrose’s orthodoxy was crystal clear and undeniable and that his status was such that translators who re-wrote hymns in Greek with Latin characters which were considered Ambrosian respected their dogmatic precision, (c) the publication of one hymn in Latin and its equivalent Greek text with Latin characters which was never attributed to Ambrose and which, contrary to the category of translated hymns mentioned in point ‘b’, manifests serious dogmatic alterations which occurred during the translation from Latin to Greek, despite the fact that its prototype does not deviate from the orthodox dogma. The Abstract in English is then included, followed by the Bibliography, the Translation Index, the Index of Excerpts from the Bible, the Index of Names and the Index of Terms
""Saint Neophytos the Recluse (12th cent.) is the writer of Tυπικὴ Διαθήκη (ΤΔ), the first Typikon (Charter of foundation) of the monastery he founded in Paphos. Each particular edition of and research on saint Neophytos’ TΔ has its own value. The autobiographical passages of ΤΔ provide valuable pieces of information about the saint᾽s life and personality. Most researchers agree on specific elements such as the fact that the saints’ hometown was located in the wider region of Lefkara, that his parents had signed an engagement contract against his will, etc. Kyprianos (1779) claimed that Neophytos had been married for a while before he assumed the monastic habit; however, such a claim is proved unfounded. There is an open discussion among the researchers concerning the exact time when Neophytos wrote TΔ. Some claim that he wrote the first TΔ in 1177, 18 years after 1159, the year of his installation in the cave of Enkleistra (place of seclusion). They support that the number 8 that exists in the manuscript instead of the correct 18 is due to false writing. Our view differs. The investigation of the autobiographical passages in all of his works and the note in the second and final TΔ that Bakchos, bishop of Paphos, ratified the first TΔ, in relation to Neophytos’ statement that the first TΔ claimed absolute indigence of the Monastery, a claim that ceased to exist during the Latin occupation of the island (after 1191), as well as the morphological observation on the text that the word «cave» was replaced by the word «Enkleistra» from the point of reference to Basil Kinnamos as bishop of Paphos provide valuable evidence. All these led to the conclusion that the immurement of Neophytos took place in 1167, long after his initial installation in the cave (1159). Therefore the writing of the first TΔ took place eight years later, as is faultlessly mentioned in the manuscript, that is, in 1175. Among others, a new opinion is supported in relation to the 5th chapter of TΔ. Most researchers believe that according to this chapter, Neophytos made a trip to Jerusalem and found wood of the Holy Cross. We argue that this «holy trip» was not real, but the saint implies his persistent request in his prayer, so as to receive a piece of the Holy Cross from a visitor, request which was finally granted by God.""
Saint John Chrysostom is an eminent ecumenical teacher of Christianity. Modern research displays undiminished interest in his pedagogic techniques. John Chrysostom considers the in-structive sufficiency of memory as a crucial element of his ped-agogic interventions. He always intends to incise the content of his preachings on the memory of the congregation. According to his teachings, the use of memory for educational purposes reduces to divine initiative and human goodwill. Saint John is a shepherd, focused on his human flock and their human lives. The mnemonic impressions he uses in his speeches are de-rived from life itself: universal memories, arisen by the existen-tial background, related with the “ἀρχέγονο κάλλος” of the soul, the beauty which was lost, as well as Paradise, because of the original sin. Saint John tries to keep the memory of God alive and endeavours to unmask death in the oblivious pathways of human mind. He is a reminiscent of the lost sight of Angels and the holy lives of Saints. As a shepherd of souls, he is persis-tent to reveal the devil and his traps and lead his flock towards a constant reference to the “neighbour”, who must be loved as oneself, so that the eschatological memory of the Final Crisis could produce a realistic impact in society. His pedagogic ob-jective is not exhausted in a “gnoseological” level, or in other words, in a plain memorization of all kinds of information, such as biblical topics, and their interpretations, opinions of other Fathers, historical events, environmental aspects, socio-econo-mic phenomenons, customs, properties of ancient Greek, as well as universal Mythology, Philosophy, Technology and Sci-ence. Neither was his preaching limited to a practical level, such as the acceptance and conceptualization of moral and dogmatic lessons. John Chrysostom proves to be a great developer of experien-tial memory and a perceptive master of its exploitation in the fields of moral conscience. Being aware of the important role that memory plays in the process of learning, and particularly in Christian catechesis, he devises and applies various mnemonic techniques so as to expand and improve the mnemonic ability of the congregation. His erudition and scholarship support his immanent pedagogic talent. In his works, ancient-Greek and Jewish-Christian tradition in teaching methods are exploited in a most brilliant way. Mnemonic or “Mnemotechnia” renders the processes and techniques which lead to growth, expansion and strengthening of memorization and recollection skills. For Saint John “mne-motechnia” is a procedure, which is activated before the preach-ing and lasts long after the end of it. Chrysostomic speech is full of inventive and charming subterfuges, which maintain the in-terest and attention of the listener undiminished. There is no doubt that this kind of mnemonic amplifies the theological knowledge of the audience.· however, in this book, “mne-motechnia” is evaluated as a reinforcing operation which aims to the renovating prospect of preaching. Chrysostomic speech, beyond the authentic messages that conveys, accomplishes to “capture” the listener via “trapping” the memory of his moral conscience. Saint John knows how to develop mnemonically his peda-gogic methods, relatively with a) the suitable preparation of the congregation, so as to be ready and eager to listen and accept the preaching, b) the suitable space and time (or even the fre-quency) and, above all, the most competent dexterities in con-veying and adopting the messages of God. Thus, Chrysostom, through his works proposes to the potential lecturer or preacher the model of rational delimitation and instructive presentation of the preaching materials, as well as, the organization of teach-ing, the clarity of the messages and last but not least the “moth-er of learning”: repetition. To the listeners, Chrysostom recom-mends the regular and systematic follow-up of preaching, to-gether with certain practical sense-kinetic techniques, as well as concentration and prayer.Speaking is an art, which, when it is truly charismatic, can create strong feelings and emotions of admiration and joy. Chrysostom establishes his mnemonic methods on audibility and visualization. In other words, the visual pedagogic models function mainly in acoustic and facial level. The acoustic mne-monic techniques include semasiological and echo-instrumental forms of speaking. Visual mnemonic techniques presuppose vividness in speaking, combined with a vast number of figura-tive examples (visual models).
This research comes to illuminate a masterpiece of ecclesiastical poetry, the Great Canon of Saint Andrew of Crete (660 - 740 A.D.), with the light of two scientific fields: Theology and Pedagogy. It comes to fill the gap of a special treatise on the pedagogic elements and hermeneutical analysis of the Great Canon, on which few and restricted essays have been written, mostly of hymnologic interest. A hymnological approach of the poem (life and personality of the writer, writing circumstances, language and style) was the first step of the survey. The Great Canon is of tremendous literary value. The poetic and dense language adjusted to a pre-determined poetic measure is a most fascinating instrument, used ingeniously by the composer, whose sacred life was even more fascinating. Apart from the pedagogic character of the Canon, its presence in the Great Lent’s typikon satisfies the aesthetic need of a descend pray.As a liturgical poem, the Great Canon abounds with Orthodoxy. Partially examined, its dogmatic elements concern all branches of systematic Theology. Its full alignment with Orthodoxy discloses the potentials of its pedagogic purpose, which is repentance.Liturgical pedagogy is quite a useful term to describe the procedure of learning how to feel and follow God’s Will through Worship. This pedagogy is not something beyond or alien to any other pedagogic system. Repetition, familiarization, “material participation” (actual physical presence) to Worship are conditions sine qua non for any kind of educational attempt, even if the pedagogic aim has less to do with expanding cognitive faculty and more with enriching people’ s hearts with authentic feelings. Andrew of Crete is overwhelmed with awe and every single word of his Canon is the result of a sincere feeling. Therefore, he can and does «teach» and convey awe to the others. Saint Andrew was and still is an active member of the Church. His life proves that a composer’ s sanctity can bear dogmatic accuracy in his words, renovating inspiration in the difficult task of waking up people’s consciences that belong in different ages, educational levels and spiritual condition. Nevertheless, his pilgrimage has a common basis to stand up: Their membership to the Church, their conscientious and freewill participation in liturgical life, and their intention to follow up the spirit of the Great Lent. The Great Canon is the most intense assault to human egoism that ecclesiastical poetry can give. This impetuous self - assault in its full extent happens only once a year during the Great Lent. This is the most one can bear. The Greek term metania for repentance means change of mind. The composer addresses to the innermost recesses of people’ s hearts so as to instill the procedure of metania in a most discreet way. He leads people to personal conclusions about their own spiritual condition revealing that the only reason to mourn is the loss of Paradise. The conclusions are derived spontaneously as the Sacred Story is unfolded in a profoundly dramatic way. Divine Incarnation brings to the world the possibility of a real relationship with God, which is the basis of the orthodox concept of Pedagogy. In this relationship the unexpected and unstable party is man, not Cod. God is Love and there is nothing more reliable and invariable than love. Man’s personal controversies on the one hand, and the simplicity of the evangelic word on the other, compress any rational pre-scheduled pedagogic action; the only strong argument for the possibility of one’s repentance is the “improvisation” of Paraclete. The classic pedagogic principles are present in the Great Canon and get related to its ceremonial use, orthodox spirituality and mystical catechesis. They are orientated to ecclesiastical life. An effort to reveal the sequence of the writer’s teaching process has led to the safe conclusion that he follows a series of paradigms, parables and pictures derived from the Bible. Moreover, there is enough space for a personal view on the text, and this is why an original hermeneutic approach, yet in complete accordance with Orthodox Pedagogy, was attempted.Common pedagogic means, such as addiction, encouragement, reinforce-ment, advice, orders, paradigms and models are present in the Canon, though not always visible at first glance. Their presentation and analysis was an indispensable, yet profoundly demanding, part of the research. For instance, a pedagogue might be surprised to hear that lamentation serves encouragement. A theologian, however, can easily understand why the Canon’ s mourning is not rendered as the tragic woe of ancient Greek fatality but as the «hopeful despair» of patristic language.Certainly, in this survey Theology is not an opponent to Pedagogy. Each science has been a useful servant to the other. Both of them are something more than scientific fields. They deal with the deepest needs of the human soul - the desire to reach beauty, wisdom and happiness. Both of them have questions to pose and answers to give. However, time has come for the scientific field of Pedagogy to give a sincere answer to the crucial question of God’ s existence, because if He exists he cannot be ignored as a Teacher.URL: https://www.didaktorika.gr/eadd/handle/10442/12018
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