Fraud detection in publicly traded U.S firms using Beetle Antennae Search: A machine learning approach

Citation:

Khan, A. T., Cao, X., Li, S., Katsikis, V. N., Brajevic, I., & Stanimirovic, P. S. (2021). Fraud detection in publicly traded U.S firms using Beetle Antennae Search: A machine learning approach. Expert Systems with Applications. presented at the 2021. Copy at http://www.tinyurl.com/yhftv67y

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a fraud detection framework for publicly traded firms using an optimization approach integrated with a meta-heuristic algorithm known as Beetle Antennae Search (BAS). Existing techniques include human resources, like financial experts and audit teams, to determine the ambiguities or financial frauds in the companies based on financial and non-financial ratios. It is a laborious task, time-consuming, and prone to errors. We designed an optimization problem to minimize the loss function based on a non-linear decision function combined with the maximization of recall (Sensitivity and Specificity). We solved the optimization problem iteratively using the BAS. It is a nature-inspired algorithm and mimics the beetle’s food-searching nature. It includes a single searching particle to find an optimal solution to the optimization problem in n-dimensional space. We used a benchmark dataset collected from SEC’s Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Releases (AAERs) for the simulation. It includes 28 raw financial variables and the data collected between 1991-2008. For the comparison, we evaluated the performance of BAS with the recently proposed approach using RUSBoost. We also compared it with some additional algorithms, i.e., Logit and SVM-FK. The results showed that BAS is comparable with these algorithms and outperformed them in time consumption.

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